Spectator College



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Príď do ktorejkoľvek pobočky Tatra banky alebo si otvor účet online na www.tatrabanka.sk ŠTUDENTSКÝ ÚČET V TATRA BANКE! Máš ho aj so všetКými výhodami a inováciami zadarmo. TB_studentsky_ucet_print_258x113_1015.indd 1 5.11.2015 9:48 ADVERTISEMENT Perfektná znalosť angličtiny je neoddeliteľnou súčasťou vzdelania mladého Slováka, mladého Európana. V The Slovak Spectator si to uvedomujeme a ako hlavný zdroj informácií o Slovensku v anglickom jazyku pociťujeme aj náš diel zodpovednosti za to,aby absolventi slovenských škôl bez problémov obstáli v porovnaní so svojimi rovesníkmi z iných európskych krajín. Preto sme sa aj v uplynulých rokoch snažili prispieť svojimi znalosťami a skúsenosťami pri výučbe angličtiny na stredných a vysokých školách. Náš projekt Bringing the world to the classroom sprostredkoval mnohým slovenským stredoškolákom jedinečné stretnutia s diplomatmi pôsobiacimi na Slovensku, pri ktorých si mohli nielen otestovať svoje jazykové zručnosti v praxi, ale aj dozvedieť sa viac o krajinách, z ktorých diplomati pochádzajú. Študenti žurnalistiky zase majú šancu zlepšiť si svoje novinárske zručnosti v angličtine v rámci našich kurzov Get trained and then get published. Pre maturantov sme po dva roky v našich novinách pripravovali jednu stranu, na ktorej sme prinášali články na aktuálne témy spracované v rámci okruhov maturitných otázok. Spolu so slovníkom a praktickými cvičeniami sa strany Spectator College pre mnohých študentov a ich učiteľov stali vítanou pomôckou pri príprave na maturitnú skúšku. Publikácia, ktorú držíte v rukách, je súborom študijných materiálov Spectator College. Aj ňou by sme chceli prispieť k tomu, aby slovenskí maturanti nielen plynulo hovorili, čítali a písali po anglicky, ale zároveň aby mali prehľad o aktuálnom dianí a schopnosť kriticky nazerať na svet okolo seba. MICHAELA TERENZANI Šéfredaktorka The Slovak Spectator ZÁKLADNÝ SLOVNÍK Ak chcete získať základnú slovnú zásobu,aby ste lepšie porozumeli dennému spravodajstvu v angličtine,navštívte našu stránku www.spectator.sk/slovnik KONTAKT S JAZYKOM The Slovak Spectator denne aktualizuje informácie o Slovensku v anglickom jazyku. Aj Vy môžete byť v kontakte s angličtinou prostredníctvom svojej emailovej schránky,na ktorú si nechajte zasielať náš bezplatný Newsletter s najnovšími správami. Registrovať sa môžete na www.spectator.sk/newsletter SPECTACULAR SLOVAKIA Ak chcete predstaviť Slovensko svojim zahraničným priateľom a známym,môžete tak urobiť prostredníctvom nášho sprievodcu v angličtine Spectacular Slovakia,ktorý na viac ako 300 stranách prehľadne a v modernom dizajne popisuje našu architektúru,prírodu a cez ľudské príbehy predstavuje Slovensko v súvislostiach. Obsahom vreckového sprievodcu je aj rozkladacia mapa. Viac informácii na shop.spectator.sme.sk Lesson 1 Multicultural Society 3 Lesson 2 Hobbies, Leisure and Lifestyle 4 Lesson 3 Culture and Art 5 Lesson 4 Housing 6 Lesson 5 The Book – a Person’s Friend 7 Lesson 6 Shopping and Services 8 Lesson 7 Towns and Places 9 Lesson 8 Health Care 10 Lesson 9 Slovakia My Homeland 11 Lesson 10 Jobs 12 Lesson 11 Food 13 Lesson 12 Young People and Their World 14 Lesson 13 Communication 15 Lesson 14 Education 16 Lesson 15 Science and Technology 17 Lesson 16 Mass Media 18 Lesson 17 English-Speaking Countries 19 Lesson 18 Idols and Celebrities 20 Lesson 19 Human Relationships 21 Lesson 20 Family 22 Lesson 21 Sports and Games 23 Lesson 22 People and Nature 24 Lesson 23 Fashion 25 Lesson 24 Travelling 26 Lesson 25 People and Society 27 Na Slovensku po anglicky Spectator College OBSAH S l o v a k n e w s y o u c a n t r u s t 2€

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Filozofická fakulta TRADÍCIA. FF PU v Prešove je druhou najstaršou filozofickou fakultou na Slovensku. Spolu s košickou lekárskou fakultou vytvorila v roku 1959 základ Univerzity Pavla Jozefa Šafárika. Filozofická fakulta bola súčasťou tejto univerzity do 1. januára 1997, keď prešovské fakulty založili Prešovskú univer- zitu. Korene Filozofickej fakulty Prešovskej univerzity však siahajú až do roku 1667, v ktorom bolo založené prešovské evanjelické kolégium. KVALITA VZDELÁVANIA. Najlepšou vizitkou školy sú jej úspešní absolventi. FF PU počas svojej existencie vychovala viacero generácií špecialistov, pedagógov, uznávaných vedcov, expertov v rôznych oblastiach spoločen- skej praxe. Mnohí z nich dnes pôsobia ako špičkoví odborníci na významných postoch doma i v zahraničí. PESTRÁ PONUKA VZDELANIA. Fakulta ponúka široké spektrum humanitných a spoločenskoved- ných študijných programov. V súčasnosti má akreditovaných 35 študijných programov na baka- lárskom stupni, 33 programov na magisterskom stupni a 16 progra- mov na doktorandskom stupni. Na fakulte aktuálne študuje cca 2100 študentov na bakalárskom a magisterskom stupni štúdia a vyše 150 študentov na doktorand- skom stupni štúdia. UPLATNENIE ABSOLVENTOV. Na svoju profesionálnu kariéru sa na FF PU pripravujú preklada- telia a tlmočníci, psychológovia, mediálni pracovníci, archivári a historici, jazykovedci, učitelia a ďalší odborníci. Jedinečné a na Slovensku jediné je štúdium učiteľstva ukrajinského jazyka a literatúry, ako aj štúdium prekladateľstva a tlmočníctva v študijnom programe ukrajinský jazyk a kultúra v kombinácii. VEDECKÝVÝSKUM. Študenti majú na fakulte možnosť zapojiť sa do výskumu vo viace- rých vedných odboroch a aktívne sa zúčastňovať študentských vedeckých konferencií. Okrem riešenia národných a medzinárod- ných výskumných projektov na pôde fakulty pracujú dve centrá excelentnosti: Lingvokulturolo- gické a prekladateľsko-tlmočnícke centrum excelentnosti; Centrum excelentnosti sociohistorického a kultúrnohistorického výskumu. Na fakulte pôsobí tiež Katedra bioetiky UNESCO (UNESCO Chair in Bioethics). UMELECKÁ ČINNOSŤ. Študenti sa môžu zapojiť do akti- vít niekoľkých umeleckých telies fakulty: Študentské divadlo FF, Ženský spevácky zbor IUVENTUS PEDAGOGICA, Vysokoškolský folklórny súbor Torysa, Komorný orchester CAMERATA ACADE- MICA, Miešaný spevácky zbor NOSTRO CANTO. Na Filozofickej fakulte PU pôsobia viacerí uznáva- ní umelci – hudobníci, výtvarníci, spisovatelia. Možnosti štúdia v zahraničí. Časť svojho štúdia môžu študenti absolvovať pobytom na zahra- ničných univerzitách, s ktorými má fakulta podpísané bilaterálne dohody umožňujúce študentské mobility a stáže. Desiatky študen- tov FF PU každoročne vycestujú do Českej republiky, Poľska, Rak- úska, Maďarska, Slovinska, Srbska, Rumunska, Bulharska, Grécka, Turecka, Talianska, Španielska, Francúzska, Nemecka, Veľkej Británie, Fínska, Švédska, alebo Estónska. ŠTUDIJNÉ PROGRAMY V prípade bakalárskych študijných programov ide výlučne o dennú formu štúdia. 1) Neučiteľské študijné programy • anglický jazyk a anglofónne kultúry • archívnictvo • estetika • etika • etika – sociálna práca • filozofia • história • jazykovo-komunikačné štúdiá • kultúrne dedičstvo • mediálne štúdiá • politológia • psychológia • ruské štúdiá • sociálna práca • stredoeurópske štúdiá • prekladateľstvo a tlmočníctvo – anglický jazyk a kultúra v kombinácii – francúzsky jazyk a kultúra v kombinácii – nemecký jazyk a kultúra v kombinácii – ruský jazyk a kultúra v kombinácii – ukrajinský jazyk a kultúra v kombinácii – slovenský jazyk a kultúra v kombinácii (uchádzači budú na tento program prijatí po jeho akreditovaní) V rámci medzifakultného štúdia je možné študovať v kombinácii s uvedenými prekladateľskými a tlmočníckymi programami tiež maďarský jazyk a kultúru. 2) Učiteľské študijné programy • anglický jazyk a literatúra (jednopredmetové štúdium) • slovenský jazyk a literatúra (jednopredmetové štúdium) • sociálna práca (jednopredmeto- vé štúdium) (uchádzači budú na tento program prijatí po jeho akreditovaní) • anglický jazyk a literatúra v kombinácii • dejepis v kombinácii • estetika v kombinácii • etická výchova v kombinácii • filozofia v kombinácii • hudobné umenie v kombinácii • nemecký jazyk a literatúra v kombinácii • ruský jazyk a literatúra v kombinácii • slovenský jazyk a literatúra v kombinácii • ukrajinský jazyk a literatúra v kombinácii • výchova k občianstvu v kombinácii V rámci medzifakultného štúdia je možné študovať v kombinácii s uvedenými učiteľskými progra- mami tiež učiteľstvo biológie, ekológie, fyziky, geografie, ma- ďarského jazyka a literatúry, ma- tematiky, pedagogiky, rusínskeho jazyka a literatúry, technickej výchovy a telesnej výchovy. DEKAN prof. PhDr. VASIL GLUCHMAN, CSc. PREŠOVSKÁ UNIVERZITA V PREŠOVE ZÁKLADNÉ INFORMÁCIE PRE UCHÁDZAČOV (Bc. stupeň štúdia, prezenčné štúdium) TERMÍN PODANIA PRIHLÁŠKY: do 31. 3. 2016 Termín konania prijímacej skúšky: 26. – 28. 4. 2016 Ul. 17. novembra 1, 080 78 Prešov tel.: 051/7570819, 7570830, 7570834, 7570831, fax: 051/7570824 e-mail: philfac@unipo.sk http://www.unipo.sk/filozoficka-fakulta/ informacie-pre-uchadzacov PRINTOVÁ PRIHLÁŠKA: 34,- EUR ELEKTRONICKÁ PRIHLÁŠKA: 20,- EUR Banka: Štátna pokladnica Číslo účtu: 7000066503/8180 Číslo účtu v tvare IBAN: SK1581800000007000066503 Variabilný symbol: 101003 Konštantný symbol: 0308 ADRESA NA ZASLANIE POPLATKU: Prešovská univerzita v Prešove, Ekonomický útvar, Ul. 17. novembra 15, 080 01 Prešov ADRESA NA ZASLANIE PRIHLÁŠKY: Prešovská univerzita v Prešove, Filozofická fakulta, Ul. 17. novembra 1, 080 78 Prešov VYHODNOCOVANIE PRIJÍMACIEHO KONANIA Uchádzač si môže na FF PU podať maximálne dve prihlášky na štúdium s uvedením jedného študijného programu na každej prihláške. Prijímacie skúšky s osobnou účasťou (talentová skúška, pohovor, test) sa konajú v prípade študijných programov: anglický jazyk a anglofónne kultúry, anglický jazyk a literatúra, hudobné umenie, mediálne štúdiá, sociálna práca, sociálna práca – etika. Vostatných študijných programoch sa prijímacie konanie bude realizovať bez osobnej účasti formou vyhodnotenia výsledkov stredoškolského štúdia. BLIŽŠIE INFORMÁCIE O PRIJÍMACOM KONANÍ: http://www.unipo.sk/filozoficka-fakulta/ informacie-pre-uchadzacov PREČO ŠTUDOVAŤ U NÁS? Filozofická fakulta Prešovskej univerzity je najväčšou humanitnou a spoločenskovednou fakultou na východnom Slovensku a z hľadiska záujmu o štúdium patrí do prvej desiatky fakúlt v SR. Výsledky komplexnej akreditácie potvrdili, že dlhodobo patrí k slovenskej špičke. V oblasti humanitných vied dosiahla FF PU najlepšie hodnotenie spomedzi všetkých fakúlt slovenských univerzít. Vynikajúce výsledky dosiahla tiež v oblasti spoločenských a behaviorálnych vied a v oblasti historických vied. FOTO: Jaroslav Ondo FOTO: Jaroslav Ondo Inzercia 2

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Lesson 12 14 Young People and Their World Glossary accidentally – náhodou affair – záležitosť appreciate – oceniť approach – kontaktovať barely – ledva be aware – byť si vedomý bullying – šikanovanie classmate – spolužiak concern – týkať sa condensed – zostručnený curricula – učebný plán depict – zobrazovať development – vývoj distance – vzdialenosť divide – rozdeliť effort – snaha elevated – vypuklý encounter – stretnúť sa endure – vydržať, zniesť establish – zriadiť event – udalosť experience – skúsenosť first-hand – bezprostredný fog – hmla freedom – sloboda guarantor – garant hardship – utrpenie hostility – nepriateľstvo choice – voľba imaginable – predstaviteľný impact – ovplyvniť implement – zrealizovať impression – dojem indecisiveness – nerozhodnosť integrate – začleniť sa issue – téma kindergarten – škôlka lack – nedostatok monograph – monografia necessary – potrebný nostalgic – nostalgický observe – sledovať occasion – príležitosť occur – objaviť sa peer – rovesník polling – prieskumný praise – chváliť preserve – zachovať rarely – zriedka realm – oblasť, sféra recent – nedávny reference – odkaz relevant – aktuálny reveal – odhaliť rhetoric – frázy, prázdne reči sentiment – pocit schoolchildren – školáci spirit – duch stem – pochádzať, prameniť therefore – preto threat – hrozba torture – mučenie totalism, totalitarianism – totalita touch – dotknúť sa transfer – preniesť trivialise – zjednodušovať, banalizovať turnover – obrat unanchored – nezakotvený unbiased – nezaujatý unemployment – nezamestnanosť unfold – vyvinúť sa value – hodnota violence – násilie vivid – živý witness – byť svedkom youth – mládež Bullying is still a problem MORE than one quarter of schoolchildren admitted they have harmed their classmates, with one quarter of boys and 20 percent of girls having had a personal negative experience with bullying. This stems from the results of the State School Inspection (ŠŠI) which checked 86 schools in the 2012-2013 school year. Moreover, 43 percent of schoolchildren have witnessed bullying and 14 percent of children even said they do not feel safe at their school, the SITA newswire reported. According to special education teacher Mária Barancová, both children and teachers encounter aggressive behaviour, vulgar lan- guage and threats from children at schools. She adds that bullying starts in kindergarten, when children are kicking and beating their peers to get the toys they want. It is hard for teachers to reveal bullying since children are often afraid to talk about it. Some schools even installed video cameras to reveal the bullying at schools, she added, as reported by the TASR newswire. “Any form of bullying is dangerous,” Barancová said, as quoted by SITA, adding that it can result in serious mental problems; there- fore, it is necessary to deal with the issue. One of the projects that take aim at bullying in schools is Second Step, which helps to solve problems like aggression, violence, bully- ing, torture or hyperactivity. Moreover, it helps children develop empathy, communication skills, moral behaviour and good social relations, as reported by TASR. The project was established more than 15 years ago by the Committee for Children from Seattle, US. It has been implemented by various countries, including Slovakia. In 2014 altogether 96 teachers across Slovakia have been trained, with the programme taking place at 54 schools. So far, 154 primary schools have joined in and implemented it into their curricula, TASR wrote. The Second Step can be part of various subjects, said Eva Gajdošová, the project’s guarantor and school psychologist. Teach- ers can use the methodological learning book which contains the whole plan for working with children. Pupils and teachers work with pictures and cards which depict a specific emotion or situation that needs to be solved, and also the steps for how to do it. According to Gajdošová, the results of the project are positive. For example, children who had refused to communicate started to integrate into the group and to talk more about themselves, while hyperactive children got calmer and less aggressive. “We will monitor these schools also over the following years to ob- serve the long-term development,” Gajdošová said, as quoted by SITA. By Radka Minarechová Approaching the November events THE YOUNGER generation of- ten does not know much about the November 1989 events, ac- cording to people approached by The Slovak Spectator. Though the youth is aware of the freedoms brought after the fall of the communism, they are often not interested in the event. To catch their attention, several institutions have come up with methods to give them first-hand experience of what happened. “I have the impression that students are the least inter- ested in recent history,” his- tory teacher Branislav Kočan told The Slovak Spectator, adding that they seem like not being touched by the events. According to Laco Oravec from the Milan Šimečka Foundation (NMŠ), one of the factors impacting the lack of interest of students is that Slovakia is still a country with unanchored values. Moreover, the values of the revolution have partially disappeared and have not been transferred to future generations. “[Students] listen to the certain type of rhetoric and re- peated phrases which have re- duced the whole story of the period between 1948 and 1989, as well as the story of revolu- tion, to some condensed, and even mythological, realm,” Oravec told The Slovak Spec- tator. The opinions of young people are mostly affected by the environment they live in. This causes them to divide into various groups: from those who are nostalgic for the pre- vious regime and defend the things that worked better in the past and trivialise the communist crimes, to those who were raised in the demo- cratic spirit of hostility toward totalism, Oravec explained. “But I think many students are in some kind of fog of inde- cisiveness, unclear sentiments and unclear personal relation to such events,” he added. Travel and studies abroad highlighted Young people discuss life before November ‘89 and the November events only rarely, according to a recent survey carried out in early October as a joint project of the Institute for Public Affairs (IVO), the Focus polling agency and the Czech Public Opinion Research Centre. It also revealed that most young people think the changes brought by November ‘89 were worth it, Zora Bútorová from IVO told The Slovak Spectator. When comparing life be- fore and after 1989, young people praise mostly the polit- ical freedoms they were gran- ted, like the freedom of speech, the possibility to study, travel and work abroad, free access to information, and the possibil- ity to participate in public af- fairs, Bútorová said in refer- ence to the IVO survey. “They appreciate the pos- sibility of free choice of their own life,” she said, adding that this concerns mostly young people with a higher education who see the possibility to find a job. On the other hand, Bútorová pointed to the high unemployment of young people, which is especially el- evated in eastern and central Slovak regions. “It is understandable that these young people are keeping more critical distance from November 1989,” Bútorová ad- ded. Kočan adds that some stu- dents are also sensitive to oth- er social changes that occurred after the Velvet Revolution, like the drop in the economic level of the country, or the in- crease in criminality. Young people associate the November ‘89 events with opening the borders and the freedom of travel, mostly be- cause these benefits are fre- quently presented by media, Tibor Ujlacký, spokesperson for the Nation’s Memory Insti- tute (ÚPN), said. “But hardships or crimes that some of their grandpar- ents and parents had to endure during the totalitarian com- munist regime in former Czechoslovakia are only barely imaginable for them,” he told The Slovak Spectator. Engaging the students According to Oravec, it is a question when to start teach- ing about some kinds of events to get some neutral and un- biased attitude. He suggests that the right time may be the turnover of one generation, i.e. after some 20 years. Kočan says teachers are trying to find ways to increase the interest of youth in recent history. According to him, it is sometimes hard to explain the things which they personally experienced and thus consider obvious. Moreover, there are not many historical docu- ments made about this issue. Though the issue is covered by the media, there are no bal- anced monographs, he said. NMŠ also tries to motivate students to learn more about recent history. Back in June, it launched the Students in the Footsteps of Totalitarian- ism programme. The aim of the first project was to motiv- ate students to collect in- formation about how the Vel- vet Revolution unfolded in the place where they live. It was attended by schools in eight towns, Oravec ex- plained. Also ÚPN cooperates with educational institutions, schools, teachers, and organ- isations uniting political pris- oners and media to preserve the “nation’s memory among the young generation”. “The effort of the ÚPN is to make the information about the communist regime and its practices vivid and relevant,” Ujlacký said, adding that young people should respect the victims of communism “so the red history of the nation will not accidentally return”. To read the whole story, please go to www.spectator.sk. Heart of barbed wire displayed at the 20th anniversary. Photo: Sme BY RADKA MINARECHOVÁ Spectator staff Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia, as well as to in- spire interest in important pub– lic issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator and runs with the support of Nadácia Orange (Orange Foundation) and Petit Academy Foundation. Please see our online Spectator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, glo– ssaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. ADVERTISEMENT SP013309/001 Photo: Miroslava Cibulková

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Lesson 13 www.spectator.sk 15 Communication Glossary ability – schopnosť arbiter – rozhodca authority – úrad barrier – prekážka basics – základy civic – občiansky clarity – zrozumiteľnosť cohesion – súdržnosť competitor – súťažiaci confirm – potvrdiť consider – uvažovať content – obsah convincingly – presvedčivo cross-examination – krížový výsluch crucial – dôležitý deaf – hluchý debater – diskutér differ – líšiť sa difficulty – problem dimension – rozmer, aspekt disprove – vyvrátiť dispute – spor distinguish – rozlíšiť distort – skresliť effort – snaha employer – zamestnávateľ escape – uniknúť establish – založiť evaluate – zhodnotiť expand – rozšíriť expressive – vyjadrovací feature – črta gain – získať general public – verejnosť get to know – spoznať graduate – absolvent guarantee – záruka headmistress – riaditeľka hearing impaired – sluchovo postihnutý inadequate – nedostatočný interpreter – tlmočník joint – spoločný knowledge – vedomosti lack – chýbať methodology – metodika minority – menšinový mislead – oklamať, zavádzať offer – ponúknuť participate – zúčastniť sa perceive – vnímať perform – vystupovať performance – výkon pose – predstavovať prejudice – predsudok presentational – prezentačný promptly – okamžite provide – poskytnúť push forward – presadzovať reading comprehension – čítanie s porozumením realise – uvedomiť si recognise – rozpoznať regardless – bez ohľadu na remove - odstrániť reproduce – zopakovať seek – usilovať sa school leaving exams – ma- turita sign language – posunkový jazyk skill – schopnosť succeed – uspieť target – cieľový tournament – turnaj try – skúška, pokus volunteer – dobrovoľník yield – ustúpiť youth – mládež ‘Sign language is fascinating’ THE SLOVAK language can be difficult to learn not only by foreign- ers but also to those who were born and raised in Slovak families. For those who are hearing impaired, communication with other people poses many difficulties. To remove the barriers, hearing people can attend special courses where they not only learn the basics of sign language but also better understand the world of the deaf. “The beauty and expressive possibilities of sign language are fascinating,” Róbert Šarina, an interpreter of Slovak sign language, said in an interview with the Pontis Foundation. Šarina was born to a family where his father and brother were deaf so he had to learn the language necessary to communicate with them. He later studied special pedagogy for hearing impairment and the Slovak language and also started to interpret to and from sign language. Šarina now leads several courses where hearing people are learning sign language. According to Šarina, when people learn the sign language and really get to know it, a new dimension of communication opens in front of them. “I am personally fascinated by the attitude of the hearing im- paired to life,” Šarina said, pointing to the cohesion of their com- munity and their pleasure in their own culture. Šarina also finds it important for people with hearing to learn sign language. One such course is offered by the Pontis Foundation that im- plements it in cooperation with the Telekom Foundation. “Our joint effort is to change Slovakia into a country that under- stands the hearing impaired,” Petra Nagyová, PR manager of the Pontis Foundation, told The Slovak Spectator. The Pontis Foundation and the Telekom Foundation support hear- ing-impaired individuals who want to start their own business, launched a special programme in which special pedagogues visit famil- ies with hearing-impaired children and have even offered free courses where people can learn the basics of sign language. During their 13 years of cooperation, the foundations have real- ised what it means not to hear and how it affects the lives of hear- ing-impaired persons when they go to various authorities or to a doctor and also when they must deal with a lack of information be- cause “Slovak is a foreign language for them and they have problems with reading comprehension”, Tatiana Švrčková, manager of the Telekom Foundation and organiser of programmes for the hearing impaired, told The Slovak Spectator. At the sign language courses, the participants can also learn more about the culture of the hearing impaired and the problems they face. “I think that learning foreign languages removes barriers between people,” Šarina told the Pontis Foundation. “It is important [to realise that] that even though it is difficult for a person who can hear to learn sign language, it is much easier than when the hearing impaired try to learn the spoken language.” By Radka Minarechová Learning the art and skill of debating CRITICAL thinking skills are important abilities students can use in their future life, the schools say. One of the ways to learn these skills and make ra- tional arguments is to parti- cipate in debates. Several schools across Slovakia have recognised this important need and have started their own debate clubs in coopera- tion with the Slovak Debate Association (SDA). “Our education system does not teach us how to think critically and how to work with information we receive,” Hana Skljarszka, a sociology student, who served as Slovakia’s United Nations Youth Delegate in 2013, told The Slovak Spec- tator in an earlier interview. “We have media distorting in- formation or pushing forward ideas which people automatic- ally accept without evaluation. We live in social bubbles which reproduce some values or ideas and we cannot escape them until someone shows us the way.” Skljarszka is also one of the arbiters of the SDA, a civic as- sociation established in 1999. It is the only group in Slovakia that deals with systematic de- velopment of debate activities and debate methodology, ac- cording to the SDA website. Young people are the main target group for the SDA and it teaches them how to think crit- ically, use arguments, commu- nicate effectively, do research and perform well in front of the public. It also cooperates with teachers, other organisations and the general public. “Debate develops the ability to distinguish between facts and opinions, good and bad ar- gumentation, and quality and inadequate sources of information,” Michal Adam, spokesperson for SDA, told The Slovak Spectator. According to Adam, de- baters have to be sure about the information sources they use, to recognise strong and weak points of their arguments as well as those of their opponent and how to promptly respond. SDA also organises competi- tions for debaters that differ for primary, secondary schools and universities. The competitions are decided by arbiters who are trained by the SDA at tourna- ments and individual courses. “Arbiters evaluate the de- bate regardless of their own opinion strictly based on what was said,” Adam explained. “They judge the quality, logic and clarity of arguments, the ability to disprove the opponent’s arguments or the ability to succeed in cross-ex- amination. Presentational skills are the last priority – in debate the content, not the form, is crucial.” Courses for all Currently there are about 45 debate clubs active at primary, secondary schools and universities across Slov- akia. As schools become inter- ested in debates they establish new clubs every year that are then led by young people, Adam said. “The whole organisation depends on young people,” Adam continued, adding that many students who attend the SDA programmes then remain active in the organisation as volunteers and they are able to provide various seminars for debate clubs at schools. A school that cooperates with SDA is Tisovec Lutheran High School that established its collaboration in 1999. Helena Pašiaková, the school’s headmistress, said the idea to hold debates was very interest- ing to the school. “We are a bilingual school and our US lectors, who had experience with debates, in- spired and led us in the beginning,” Pašiaková told The Slovak Spectator. She confirmed that many of their graduates have stayed with SDA and help, especially at the workshop week held in June. During this event stu- dents learn more about the rules of debate and have a chance to give it a try. “Students perceive it very positively and learn much,” Pašiaková continued, adding that the event also has a mo- tivational aspect since they seek to find students who will be interested in participating in the debate club. Why start debating According to Adam, skills like leading effective dialogue, working in a team and under pressure, or convincingly presenting one’s ideas prepare the debaters for many situ- ations in their future life. Moreover, these skills are of- ten sought after by potential employers. Additionally, de- baters are more tolerant and more open in considering minority positions, Adam said. “In civil life, which often brings disputes, they sub- sequently can distinguish ideological prejudices and reasonable arguments, prefer facts to feelings, and yield to better arguments or reach compromise,” Adam added. Pašiaková confirmed that the skills students learn in de- bate are important for life. First, it can be a motivation for students to succeed in their “fights” with parents and teachers and to be better pre- pared for their school leaving exams. Later, they understand that they can learn to work with informational materials, improve their communication skills, expand their general knowledge, watch develop- ments in society, the economy and politics and, most of all, use critical thinking, she ex- plained. “The critical thinking skills they gain and cultivate are a guarantee that they will not be easily misled, an im- portant feature of a free citizen,” Pašiaková concluded. Students should learn how to debate. Photo: Courtesy of SDA BY RADKA MINARECHOVÁ Spectator staff Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia, as well as to in- spire interest in important pub– lic issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator and runs with the support of Nadácia Orange (Orange Foundation) and Petit Academy Foundation. Please see our online Spectator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, glo– ssaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. ADVERTISEMENT SP013309/001 Photo: Tomáš Benedikovič

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Lesson 14 16 Education Glossary academic scholarships – motivačné štipendium accreditation – akreditácia aforementioned – už zmienený achieve – dosiahnuť alternate – striedať sa amendment – novela anchor – ukotviť apply to – vzťahovať sa automotive – automobilový average – priemer await – čakať branch – pobočka comeback – návrat commerce department – obchodné oddelenie comprehensive – komplexný compulsory – povinný consortium – združenie, konzorcium contain – obsahovať customer management – kli- entsky manažment diverse – rozmanitý donation – darovanie draft – návrh electrotechnician – elektro- technik encourage – povzbudiť engineering – strojárstvo evaluate – vyhodnotiť fade – miznúť, strácať sa fictional – fiktívny final report – vysvedčenie forestry – lesníctvo form – tlačivo framework – rámec grammar school – gymnázium household – domácnosť human relations – ľudské zdroje implement – zaviesť in order to – aby income – príjem journal – denník mechanic – mechanic mechatronics technician – mechatronik metallurgy – hutníctvo mining – baníctvo nation-wide – národný obtain – získať pertain to – týkať sa plant – závod praise – chváliť premise – priestory, areal primary school – základná škola prospect – perspektíva, možnosť ratio – podiel recently – nedávno reduce – znížiť requirement – požiadavka salary – plat secondary school – stredná škola secondary vocational school – stredná odborná škola shoe-making – obuvnícky scholarship – štipendium school leaving exam – maturitná skúška silicate – kremičitan specialisation – odbor stipulate – stanoviť undergo – podstúpiť workplace – pracovisko New school year brought changes SEVERAL changes awaited teachers and 702,000 pupils altogether at primary and secondary schools with the start of the new school year. Under the new rules, pupils applying for grammar schools and secondary vocational schools with school leaving exams will need to achieve a certain average of marks. The amendment, passed during the time the Education Ministry was led by Dušan Čaplovič, stipu- lates that only those whose average marks from compulsory subjects were not worse than 2.0 can apply for grammar schools. The average for secondary vocational schools with school leaving exams (called maturita in Slovak) was set to 2.75. This applies to final reports from the second half of eighth grade and both halves of the ninth grade of primary school, the SITA news- wire reported. Further changes pertain to ninth grade students who are regu- larly tested in maths and Slovak language. The tests will take place on April 8, with the alternative date being set on April 21, which is one month earlier than now. With such a move the Education Ministry met the requirements of schools complaining that students do not learn enough after undergoing the testing. Moreover, the new school year brought several new specialisa- tions. Students can now study, for example, the protection of people and property from fire, customer management at the post office and forestry and forest management, SITA wrote. The ministry further reduced the administrative work for teach- ers after it dropped some duplicate forms, like the personal file of stu- dents, the plan of the work of the school or school facility, the journal of an educational group and thematic educational plans for individu- al subjects. Changes also awaited universities. Under the new rules, students applying for a social scholarship will not submit reports about in- come from donations. “This applies mostly to students who did not live in the same household with their parents and were reporting fictional income from a donation in order to get as high a scholarship as possible,” the ministry explained, as quoted by SITA. The Education Ministry also passed changes to academic scholar- ships in order to increase the interest of students in technical special- isations. To achieve this goal, it allocated more money for certain specialisations in 2014. Universities will also undergo comprehensive accreditation that started in July 2014 and will last for 14 months. The accreditation will follow stricter rules. It will assess all specialisations which universities want to have accredited, and will evaluate the schools’ research and de- velopment, as well as artistic and other creative activities, SITA wrote. By Radka Minarechová Dual education is making a comeback WHILE several companies in Slovakia have established co- operation with secondary vo- cational schools in order to train workers lacking in the market, the Education Min- istry is taking steps to adopt a dual education scheme with the prospect of launching the nation-wide project at specific schools as soon as September 2015. Representatives of foreign chambers in Slovakia praise the general trend and the min- istry initiative specifically, but warn that the system needs to alsoworkinpractice. Dual education is nothing new in Slovakia. The schools followed the scheme in the past, but it gradually faded after the fall of communism. Employers, however, call for the return of the system, and say they lack educated voca- tionalprofessionals. In order to solve this prob- lem, several companies have established cooperation with schools and train students dir- ectly at their premises. Most recently, the Education Min- istry and the Austrian Embassy to Slovakia introduced the Young Stars pilot project that should serve as an example of implementing the dual educa- tion scheme in Slovakia as well as abroad, the TASR newswire reported. Within the project, the vo- cational school in Zlaté Moravce cooperates with the consortium of companies, composed of four Austrian firms (MIBA Steeltec, ZKW Slovakia, Pankl Automotive Slovakia and HTP Slovakia Vráble), two German and two Slovak firms (Matador Auto- motive Vráble, Secop, Bauer Gear Motor Slovakia and Švec a spol). The project started on September2. “In all, 33 students started to study in two pilot classes and each of these firms has their own students who un- dergo practical training there,” Martina Krišková, project manager of the commerce de- partment at the Austrian Em- bassy to Slovakia, told The SlovakSpectator. Unlike other projects, Krišková said, students start their practical education in the first grade. The ratio of theory and practice is 40:60. Students alternate weeks in classrooms and the workplace, and at the end of the school year spend an entiremonthinthecompany. In addition to this, stu- dents get some financial bonus for their work in the firm, TASR wrote. Companies take training lead Slovakia can offer several examples of successful cooper- ation between schools and companies. Bratislava-based carmaker Volkswagen Slov- akia, for example, cooperates with secondary schools as well as universities in technical and economic specialisations. It also opened its own dual educa- tion centre in September 2013 and offers 48 places in three specialisations: mechatronics technicians (24), mechanics (12)andelectrotechnicians(12). Žilina-based Kia Motors Slovakia cooperates with sec- ondary vocational schools, mostly from the Žilina region. It offers its own education pro- grammes that contain ele- ments of the dual education system, like the scholarship programme and practical training, Kia’s spokesman Jozef Bačé told The Slovak Spectator. More than 533 stu- dents have already undergone training in the plant, and 26 secondary school and 13 uni- versity students have joined the scholarship programme, he added. The biggest employer in eastern Slovakia, U.S. Steel Košice, has also been cooperat- ing with schools for years. It focuses mostly on metallurgy, engineering and eletrotech- nics, Martin Pitorák, vice-pres- ident for human relations in the company, told The Slovak Spectator. The cooperation with the vocational school in Košice’s Šaca district has been even lasting for 50 years, he added. Another company with a long-term tradition in training students is Železiarne Podbrezová which even estab- lished its own private second- ary vocational school that of- fers four specialisations. Stu- dents undergo practice directly in the firm and then start to work there for at least three years, the Hospodárske Noviny daily wrote. Matador Group and its branches in Slovakia also co- operate with Slovak schools, both with secondary vocation- al and universities. Its branch in Vráble take part in the aforementioned Young Stars project, spokeswoman Linda Golejová said. The German-Slovak Cham- ber of Industry and Commerce (SNOPK), in cooperation with the Slovak Education Ministry, launched a project in February 2014 called fit4future, aimed at encouraging practical educa- tion for pupils in the technical sphere. It focuses mostly on improving the cooperation between technical schools and improves the quality of prac- tical training, helps with in- creasing qualifications and with job placement, according to the official website. Ján Kokorák from SNOPK said that there are several companies that cooperate with vocational schools, mostly in the automotive, engineering, electrotechnical sectors, but also in areas as diverse as shoe- making. “Since the companies know best what they need stu- dents for and which practical experience they need to obtain during the practice, it is neces- sary that the schools listen and adapt to the requirements of employers,” Kokorák told The Slovak Spectator. To read the whole story, please go to www.spectator.sk. Volkswagen is also training students on the spot. Photo:Sme BY RADKA MINARECHOVÁ Spectator staff Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia, as well as to in- spire interest in important pub– lic issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator and runs with the support of Nadácia Orange (Orange Foundation) and Petit Academy Foundation. Please see our online Spectator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, glo– ssaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. ADVERTISEMENT SP013309/001 Photo: Ján Krošlák

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Lesson 15 www.spectator.sk 17 Science and Technology Slovak investment in science lagging THOUGH the Education Min- istry says the science funding is gradually increasing every year, Slovakia still lags behind the European Union average. Moreover, the Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAV), one of the biggest scientific institutions in the country, may see its budget for next year drop by 18 percent, as is indicated by the draft presen- ted by the Finance Ministry in mid-August. Slovakia invested 0.68 percent of GDP into science in 2011, which then increased to 0.82 percent in 2012 and 0.85 percent in 2013. The EU aver- age in 2012 was, however, 2.07 percent. “Slovakia is second to last when it comes to supporting science and research from na- tional resources within the EU,” Eva Majková, deputy head of the SAV responsible for science and research, told The Slovak Spectator. Since the investments in science are increasing, she does not understand why the state is cutting the budget for the SAV which is, according to international rankings, the most successful scientific in- stitution in Slovakia. The SAV as a whole employs 11 percent of all scientists in Slovakia. It publishes 35 percent of all re- gistered outputs and about 40 percent of all responses in Slovakia. According to the budget draft, it should get €47 mil- lion, which is €10.3 million less than this year. SAV warns that this will force mass lay- offs. Ján Sedlák, chair of the SAV Congress, also pointed to another problem SAV em- ployees face: salaries that are lower than the average salary in Slovakia and even signific- antly lower than those of oth- er workers in the Bratislava region. “Such a state worsens the intellectual safety of the country and will lead to a drain of experts who will not find career guarantees for their professional orientation in science and research in Slovakia,” Sedlák said, as quoted by the TASR news- wire. The negotiations over the final version of the budget are still underway and it is pos- sible that the final funds for SAV will change. Problematic financing According to Renáta Králiková from the Slovak Governance Institute (SGI), reducing the budget of SAV indicates a reduction in in- vestment in science. These funds did not have to ulti- mately remain at SAV but, for example, could be diverted in- to the Slovak Research and Development Agency (APVV) where it would be possible to compete over the funds, she told the Slovak Spectator. Leaders at Comenius Uni- versity in Bratislava (UK), an- other important scientific in- stitution, say that science and research lacks the support of not only the politicians, but also of various interest, eco- nomic and lobbyist groups. “Research and develop- ment in our conditions is of- ten approached as if its sup- port, financing and co-finan- cing is some kind of charity,” Karol Mičieta, rector of the UK, told The Slovak Spectator. According to him, finan- cing research and develop- ment should be a regular part of economic and business plans of the state. To achieve such perception it is neces- sary to raise the awareness and support of not only the academia, but also the public and media. “It is necessary to realise at the level of the whole soci- ety that research is the only way to get to innovations without which there will be no new technologies,” Mičieta explained. It can also help implement already developed technologies, he added. “Sci- ence and research are also in- evitable tools to prepare qual- ity experts for our industry, business-making, and espe- cially for competitiveness of our economy.” The Education Ministry says that Slovakia’s problem is mostly the structure of finan- cial resources. While the trend in European countries is that the private contributions on research are higher than the public sources, in Slovakia public sources prevail, min- istry spokeswoman Beáta Dupaľová Ksenzsighová told The Slovak Spectator. The funds According to Králiková, a first priority for boosting sci- ence should be strengthening the grant system in Slovakia, meaning supporting more grants provided by the APVV with higher amounts. “This will also create pressure on increasing the quality since the money will go to the best-quality projects,” Králiková said, adding that the funds APVV currently redistributes are low. APVV supports various projects linked to basic re- search and applied research and development, as well as those of the international bi- lateral scientific and technical cooperation and projects fin- anced by EU funds. They per- tain to various fields, from natural sciences, through technical, medical, agricul- tural and social sciences, to human sciences. It also con- tributes to establishing new contacts that can “increase the participation of Slovak scientists and researchers in the European scientific area”, Alena Bokrošová from APVV told The Slovak Spectator. The ministry plans to in- crease the funds into research to 1.2 percent of GDP by 2020, according to the Strategy of Research and Innovation for Intelligent Specialisation of Slovakia. Within this support, it also plans to significantly increase the private finances that should cover two-thirds of expenditures on research and development in Slovakia, Dupaľová Ksenzsighová said. To read the whole story, please go to www.spectator.sk. Glossary academia – akademická obec amendment – novela approach – pristupovať awareness – povedomie boost – podporiť budget – rozpočet business-making – podnikanie competitiveness – konkurencieschopnosť contribute – prispieť daily – denník deputy – zástupca divert – presmerovať double-backed – dvojito zálohovaný draft – návrh drain – odlev drop – klesnúť employ – zamestnávať exclaim – vykríknuť expenditures – výdavky governance – riadenie gradually – postupne honour – česť implement – zrealizovať income tax – daň z príjmu indicate – naznačovať inevitable – nevyhnutný interconnect –prepojiť know-how – znalosť lack – chýbať, mať nedostatok lag behind – zaostávať za land – pristáť lander – pristávací modul layoff – prepúšťanie lobbyist – lobistický mass – masový necessary – potrebný, nutný negotiation – rokovanie newswire – agentúra obstacle – prekážka orbiter – časť sondy, ktorá zostáva na obežnej dráhe output – výstup perception – vnímanie prevail – prevažovať programming period – programové obdobie ranking – hodnotenie, rebríček redistribute – prerozdeliť regular – bežný remain – zostať researcher – výskumník resources – zdroje safety – bezpečnosť scientist – vedec second to last – predposledný secure – zabezpečiť separation – oddelenie significantly – výrazne Slovak Governance Insti- tute – Inštitút pre dobre spravovanú spoločnosť spacecraft – vesmírna loď subcontractor – subdodávateľ survey – skúmať synergy – synergia tax relief – daňová úľava transfer – prenos ultimately – nakoniec underway – rozbehnutý workplace – pracovisko worsen – zhoršiť Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia, as well as to in- spire interest in important pub– lic issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator and runs with the support of Nadácia Orange (Orange Foundation) and Petit Academy Foundation. Please see our online Spectator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, glo– ssaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. Institutions point to importance of science. Photo: TASR BY RADKA MINARECHOVÁ Spectator staff ADVERTISEMENT SP013309/001 Slovakia’s part in Rosetta project “WE ARE on the comet,” exclaimed scientists and engineers in European Space Operations Centre located in German town Darm- stadt, which serves as the main mission control centre for the European Space Agency (ESA), when the Rosetta spacecraft parked near Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in early August. It had been travelling to the comet for 10 years, five months and four days. The project of the whole mission, which cost more than €1 bil- lion, was also attended by Slovaks. Experts from the Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAV) helped construct an Electrical Support System (ESS) that secures communication between the orbiter and the lander, and also the separation of the lander from the orbiter. When being connected, the communication is secured via a special cable. After they are separated, they will communicate with a radio system which will work similarly to the internet, Ján Baláž from the Insti- tute of the Experimental Physics of the SAV told the Pravda daily in January. The system, made in cooperation with Irish STIL company, is considered one of the critical systems of the spacecraft. “Therefore it was made from the best quality components under strict technological conditions and is double-backed,” Baláž said, as quoted by Pravda. When describing how they started cooperation on the Rosetta project, Baláž said that Slovakia participated as a subcontractor in 2000 and 2001, i.e. at the time the country was not officially cooper- ating with ESA. Since they had worked on several projects with STIL, they were also asked to attend the Rosetta project. “For us, it was an honour to contribute to such a prestigious ESA mission,” Baláž told Pravda. “A transfer of technological experience and know-how to our workplace based on ESA standards was also valuable.” The spacecraft is now expected to closely survey the comet. It should create a map and scientists and engineers will then choose a place where the Philae lander will land in November to make further analysis. The Experimental Physics branch of SAV workplace will not, however, contribute to these analyses since it only contributed to the project’s technological part, Baláž explained. By Radka Minarechová Photo: AP Sita

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Lesson 16 18 Mass Media News websites battle online user vitriol THE SME daily and Aktuality.sk news websites chose not to open the user comment secti- ons for several articles publis- hed in August, citing irrele- vant, offensive and hateful re- marks left on previous articles. For media outlets the world over, moderating and closing online user comment sections is nothing new, and some do notallowthematall. “We have been appro- aching [user] discussions mo- re carefully for several years,” Filip Struhárik, project mana- ger of the Sme.sk website, told TheSlovakSpectator. He pointed to several deve- lopments in administering user discussions, like launching the Romovia.sme.sk website in spring 2013, which has no user comment sections under most of the stories. This was done in response to the daily’s expe- rience with racist and xenop- hobic comments left under the articles, regardless of the topic. They gradually stopped allo- wing user comments under mo- re articles that were likely to elicit heated, emotional respon- ses,Struhárikexplained. Sme now publishes three types of articles: those that are opentopublicdiscussion;those where the discussion is mode- rated; and those for which the discussion is closed. When de- ciding whether to close an article’s user comment section, they consider several criteria, like the news value of the text, the readers’ interest in the is- sue, and whether they can con- trol the submitted comments. An important factor is whether an article may spark heated emotions, the daily wrote on its blog,publishedinearlyAugust. Aktuality.sk also pointed to emotionally charged user comments when explaining the reasons for closing discus- sion threads, especially under articles about Russia, Ukrai- ne, Islam and the Roma. “Hateful discussions bet- ween some people degrade the article, the topic, but also the event and the people who we were writing about,” the edi- torial team of the website ex- plained. Though some people may consider the practice of deleting comments to be an infringe- ment of freedom of speech, this is actually not the case, the website stressed, adding it is “unacceptable [to allow] our discussions to become a place for communication of extre- mists or individuals who deli- berately unleash hatred”. Nothing new in the world Sme has tried several methods of improving its user comment sections in recent years. For example, it intro- duced moderated discussions in December 2013, in which moderators review every submitted comment and pub- lish only those that are rele- vant to the topic at hand. The number of moderated texts is, however, limited, since “we do not have the ca- pacities to monitor every dis- cussion thread on our website”, Sme explained. Moderated discussions are frequently used by internati- onal media. The New York Ti- mes, for example, only opens about 17 articles per day for comments. The stories are pic- ked by a member of the com- munity staff, who consults with the news desk that runs the home page about the artic- les that are likely to be publis- hed that day. He or she then decides which articles to open for comments. Moreover, the opinion department chooses a number of articles to open for discussion with the communi- ty team, the daily wrote in its blog in 2012. The British BBC also mo- derates discussions on its website, explaining that ma- ny different issues they report on “generate a lot of passion”, adding that they have “a duty to provide an impartial and balanced output”. Decency is important Representatives of nati- onal dailies agree that it is im- portant to have decent and quality discussions on the web, and therefore it is some- times necessary to control and even intervene in the user discussion threads. Nora Slišková, editor-in- chief of the Pravda daily, said that the readers are allowed to start discussions below every article published on their website. Any expressions of hate, rudeness, vulgarity or others that violate their moral standard are, however, unac- ceptable and the administra- tors will then either erase the comments or block the user, Slišková explained to The Slo- vak Spectator. Ivana Špotáková from the communication department of the Ringier Axel Springer publishing house, whose flagship is the Nový Čas daily, also admits that they follow a moral standard and if this is violated, they have to inter- vene. Struhárik notes that user discussions are a showcase for all media. According to him, when intervening in discussi- ons, they also want to protect reporters, respondents and bloggers from “personal at- tacks by the anonymous crowd”. Moreover, not just the author, but also the media is responsible for the content of the user comments, he stres- sed. “No media in the world has found a recipe to create a space for a sophisticated exchange of opinions on the web yet,” Sme wrote on its blog. “The internet discussi- ons only remind us how much energy, patience and effort is necessary for us to listen to and respect each other.” To read the full story, please go to www.spectator.sk. Glossary ability – schopnosť administer – spravovať approach – pristupovať available – dostupný balanced - vyvážený broadcaster – vysielateľ decency – slušnosť defect – chyba, nedostatok degrade – znehodnotiť development – vývoj editorial team – redakcia editor-in-chief – šéfredaktor elicit – vyvolať elimination – odstránenie encourage – podnietiť enhance – zlepšiť flagship – vlajková loď formative – formujúci freedom of speech – sloboda prejavu gain – získať hateful – nenávistný hatred – nenávisť heated – vášnivý charged – nabitý impartial – nestranný infringement – zasahovanie, porušenie intervene – zasiahnuť irrelevant – nesúvisiaci likelihood – pravdepodob- nosť media outlets – médiá moral standard – morálne normy motion – podnet news desk – redakcia spravodajstva news value – spravodajská hodnota offensive – urážlivý output – výstup passion – vášeň pertain to – týkať sa proceeding – konanie public-service – verejno- právny publisher – vydavateľ publishing house – vydava- teľstvo reactively – reaktívne readership – čitatelia regardless of – bez ohľadu na remark – poznámka review – posúdiť rudeness – hrubosť showcase – vitrína, výkladná skriňa sophisticated – kultivovaný spark – podnietiť, vyvolať spokesperson – hovorca standard language – spisov- ný jazyk subsequently – následne substantial – zásadný substantive – podstatný supervise – dohliadať na supervisory – kontrolný thread – vlákno timely fashion – včas unacceptable – neprijateľný undergo – podstúpiť unleash – rozpútať, spustiť unsatisfactory – neuspokoji- vý vitriol – jedovatosť, kritika xenophobic – xenofóbny youth – mládež Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia, as well as to ins- pire interest in important pub– lic issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator and runs with the support of Nadácia Orange (Orange Foundation). Please see our online Spectator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, glo– ssaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. Culture Ministry criticises language in media THE QUALITY of language used in media is unsatisfactory, the Cul- ture Ministry wrote in its report on using the state language, which the government approved at its May 21 session. Since the media has a formative effect on people, especially the youth, the ministry has recommended several ways to improve the language quality in the media and proposes ways to encourage reporters to use the standar- dised form of Slovak. The report showed that the Council for Broadcasting and Re- transmission (RVR), a licensing and supervisory body for broadcas- ting media, received 21 motions pertaining to the language used in the media in 2012 and 2013, such as a lack of Slovak dubbing and sub- titles or poor quality Slovak. It subsequently launched 11 procee- dings, with seven broadcasters actually being punished for violating the law on state language. Six were notified of violating the law and one was fined. Though the number of complaints pertaining to using the Slovak language was not as high as the number of other complaints, the RVR warned against “low culture of a word in broadcasting, grammar mis- takes, mistakes in pronunciation, stylistic and other defects to whose elimination it is necessary to make a long-term effort that will be es- pecially related to improving education throughout the network, from primary schools to special seminars for media professionals”. The Culture Ministry therefore recommended improving the education of the Slovak language at universities focused on the me- dia sphere (including journalism, marketing and media communi- cation, and acting) and organising systematic language education for reporters, TV presenters and other media employees. It also pro- posed that reporters and TV presenters undergo so-called qualificati- on tests, i.e. tests for reading, pronunciation, articulation and spe- ech rate, before their first broadcasting. The ministry also recommended creating a post of language re- porters in broadcasting and print media, as well as the post of voice teachers for broadcasting media. Moreover, it advised the public-service Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS) to create room for broadcasting programmes focused on standard Slovak language and language counselling. The RTVS responded that it plans to launch a new educational cycle titled ‘Let’s not be afraid of the Slovak language’ that should be broadcast once a week. It should have 16 parts that would introduce Slovak language in real life, the broadcaster’s spokesperson Domini- ka Šulková told the SITA newswire back in May. She added that they also monitor the ability of new reporters to work with the language. The broadcaster introduced regular trainings for RTVS reporters, including new ones that focus on phonetics, spe- ech technique, stylistics and standard language, Šulková told SITA. By Radka Minarechová Online user discussions are sometimes shut down. Photo: Sme BY RADKA MINARECHOVÁ Spectator staff ADVERTISEMENT SP013309/001 Photo: Sme

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Lesson 17 www.spectator.sk 19 English-Speaking Countries Glossary additional - ďalšie air-traffic - letová prevádzka allocate - zhromaždiť ambassador-designate - určený veľvyslanec annually - každoročne application - prihláška asylum - azyl at least - aspoň attract - priťahovať awareness - povedomie bailout - výpomoc banish - vyhnať bid - ponuka bond yield - výnos dlhopisu boost - podpora brief - krátky carbon - uhlík coal - uhlie concern - záujem cope - vyrovnávať sa s niečim descent - pôvod desire - túžba develop - rozvíjať discourse - rozprava doubt - pochybovať elsewhere - inde emerge - vynoriť sa emphasis - dôraz endowment - dotácia estimate - odhad expenditures - náklady forecast - predpoveď foremost - predovšetkým former - bývalý gas - plyn growth - rast hub - centrum impact - dopad incorporate - zahrnúť precaution - opatrenie influx - príliv legacy - dedičstvo maintain - udržiavať measurement - opatrenie mineral - ruda obsolete - zastaraný opportunity - príležitosť overcome - prekonať overreliance - prílišné spoliehanie oversea - zámorie particular - konkrétne peak - vrchol perhaps - možno pocketbook - financie population density - hustota obyvateľstva preach - kázať presidential race - boj o prezidentské kreslo recap - rekapitulácia renewable - obnoviteľný representative - zástupca resettlement - presídľovanie running for president - kandidovať na prezidenta shamrock - trojlístok shift - posun shortage - nedostatok significant - významný solution - riešenie springboard - trampolína spur - pohánať square kilometre - štvorcový kilometer suitable - vhodný sustainable - udržateľný threat - ohrozenie volunteering - dobrovoľníctvo way - spôsob Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia as well as to in- spire interest in important pub– lic issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator. Please see our on- line Spectator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, glo– ssaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. SPECTATOR COLLEGE LESSONS Lesson 1. Fashion – January 27 Lesson 2. People and Nature – February 10 Lesson 3. Towns and Places – February 24 Lesson 4. Sport and Games – March 3 Lesson 5. Family – March 24 Lesson 6. Human Relationship – April 7 Lesson 7. Idols and Celebrities – April 21 Lesson 8. English-Speaking Countries – May 5 Lesson 9. Health Care – May 19 Lesson 10. Business English (special) – June 2 Diplomats talk culture, economics SLOVAKIA, centrally located in Europe, represents an ex- citing market for countries with English as an official language, according to rep- resentatives of several such countries. Those words are supported by the fact that some are among the top in- vestors in the country. The Slovak Spectator made a brief recap of its latest interviews with some English-speaking countries’ representatives, fo- cusing on issues they have been dealing with. Similar to Slovakia, these countries are still working to overcome economic diffi- culties from recent years. At the same time, each of them have their own issues, includ- ing increased security con- cerns in the United States, waves of African immigrants coming to Malta and using the London Olympics to spur in- vestment in the United King- dom. US freedom As the presidential race in the US was coming to its end in November 2012, The Slovak Spectator spoke to US ambas- sador to Slovakia Theodore Sedgwick about the differ- ences between American campaign discourse and elec- tion discourse in Slovakia. He said that one big difference is that the US election campaign process takes a long time, two years at least. Sometimes people are running for presid- ent for four years. “Here, in this country, it’s very quick, just as in any typ- ical parliamentary system: people get out, they vote,” Sedgwick said. Slovakia also does not have as many public debates as the US and citizens here are perhaps more interested in stability and more pocket- book-related issues, according to him. By 2011, 10 years had passed since 9/11, the deadli- est ever attack on the US. The Slovak Spectator asked Sedg- wick how the US has changed over the past decade in terms of awareness of the terrorist threat. He responded that US citizens’ way of life has changed, probably perman- ently, and they have to incor- porate precautions about se- curity into their daily lives. This sparked a debate about the level of security com- pensated by restricting of civil rights. “We Americans are so used to our freedom and we don’t like any restrictions on that,” Sedgwick said. “Now we have to balance our desire for freedom against our desire for security.” The UK after the Olympics There is no doubt that the London Olympic Games in 2012 were a success story for British businesses, said Julia Smyth, the former chargé d’affaires of the British Em- bassy in Bratislava, in August 2013. The games created a multi-billion pound spring- board to take British expertise to the world, and the UK Trade and Investment (UKTI) team is working hard to make the most of the significant oppor- tunities. The UKTI’s target is to deliver 11 billion pounds of economic benefit from the London 2012 Games by July 2016, from additional exports, investment into the UK and successful bids for high-value international contracts. “The Olympic Games also delivered a strong social legacy,” Smyth said. “Last summer, organisers changed the way Britain views volun- teering. Since then, thou- sands of people have been in- spired to get involved with their local sports clubs.” Smyth also spoke about the impact of new taxes sup- porting renewable power generation, which has been a widely discussed issue in the UK. “The shift to a low carbon future is an unprecedented opportunity for the UK to transform its economy and to ensure the economic recovery is a low carbon-led recovery,” she said. The vision is for the UK to be at the heart of the multi- trillion pound market that the global low carbon economy will create and where the UK is seen as a global hub for low carbon solutions. The greatest challenges are finding suit- able new technologies to meet the changes that need to be made, according to Smyth. Just looking at electricity, the UK’s energy mix consists of about 40 percent coal, about 25 percent gas, 15-20 percent nuclear and the rest are re- newables, which are also on the rise. Since a lot of obsolete nuclear power stations will be closed in the next few years, the UK is going to build more nuclear power stations, something generally suppor- ted by the British public. It prefers renewable, there is huge public support for re- newable, but there is also a majority with faith in nucle- ar, British Secretary of State for Energy & Climate Change Ed Davey told The Slovak Spectator during his visit to Slovakia in August 2013. Australians have roots elsewhere Despite the problems in the global economy, Australia has been able to maintain economic growth with good employment with low infla- tion, Australia’s ambassador- designate to Slovakia David Stuart said in February 2013. In part, Australia’s economic performance reflects its strong energy and minerals endowment, which has greatly boosted commodities trade with China in particu- lar, although other commer- cial relationships are also de- veloping quickly, for example with India. He also described the Aus- tralian education system as an important part of the country’s economy. “Education is consistently Australia’s third or fourth biggest export item,” Stuart said. “Foreign students rep- resent almost a third of all students in our universities.” Australia also has an act- ive, managed programme of immigration. In 2010-11, more than 180,000 people came to Australia under this pro- gramme. To read the whole story, please go to www.spectator.sk. English has global importance ENGLISH is the one of the most used languages in the world and it dominates science, culture and the IT sphere. It has of- ficial or special status in at least 75 countries with a total population of over two billion. Around 375 million people speak English as a first lan- guage and approximately the same number speak English as a second language. Around 750 million people are believed to speak English as a foreign language, one out of four of the world’s population speak English to some level of compet- ence, with demand from the other three-quarters increasing. By the year 2000 it was estimated that over one billion people will be learning English. Around 700,000 people come to the United Kingdom to learn English each year. English is the main language of books, newspapers, air- ports and air-traffic control, international business and aca- demic conferences, science, technology, diplomacy, sports, international competitions, pop music and advertising. More than two-thirds of the world’s scientists read in Eng- lish. Considering the IT sphere 80 percent of the world’s elec- tronically stored information is in English, three-quarters of the world’s mail is written in English and of the estimated 200 million users of the internet, some 36 percent commu- nicate in English. British English language products are worth over 800 million pounds a year to the UK. The total expenditure of the 700,000 visitors to the UK annually to learn English is over 700 million pounds, and possibly over one billion pounds. The English language makes it possible for British com- panies to develop markets, sell into them and form commer- cial alliances; it brings direct benefits through the supply of English teaching goods and services. Source: The British Council webpage Many children start learning English at an early age. Photo: Sme BY ROMAN CUPRIK Spectator staff Photo: Miroslava Cibulková

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Lesson 18 20 Idols and Celebrities Glossary abandon - opustiť admire - obdivovať adolescent - dospievajúci aspiration - ašpirácia/úsilie astonishment - údiv athlete - športovec attend - navštevovať attention - pozornosť attitude - postoj aversion - averzia behaviour - správanie case - prípad classmate - spolužiak conduct - vypracovať deed - skutok depict - zobraziť develop - vyvíjať disability - postihnutie disinterest - nezáujem dozen - tucet draw - pritiahnuť elementary school - základná škola emphasis - dôraz essay - esej evaluate - hodnotiť exorbitant - horibilné express - vyjadriť feed - kŕmiť first grader - prvák godmother - krstná mama heroine - hrdinka however - avšak challenge - výzva chip in - prispieť immediate - bezprostredný include - obsahovať insecurity - neistota involve - vyžadovať lack - nedostatok leisure - voľný čas manhood - mužstvo matter - záležitosť maturation - dospievanie mean - znamenať natural - prirodzený network - sieť observe - sledovať particularly - najmä public figures - osobnosti verejného života puppy - šteňa questionnaire - dotazník receive - prijať recognise - uznať refer - odkázať refuse - odmietnuť regularly - pravidelne reject - odmietnuť responsible - zodpovedný role model - vzor self-image - obraz o sebe self-sufficient - sebestačný sense - význam shallow - plytký sibling - súrodenec significant - významný sort - druh/typ sphere - sféra/oblasť study - štúdia suffer - trpieť/byť chorý na superficial - povrchný support - podpora suppress - utláčať tabloid - bulvár tend - mať tendenciu/mať sklon toy drive - zbierka hračiek treatment - liečba turn - zmeniť vow - prísaha/slávnostný sľub whistleblower - informátor worthy - hodný Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia as well as to in- spire interest in important pub– lic issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator. Please see our on- line Spectator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, glo– ssaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. Role models vary with age SINCE social networks and media became an important part of children’s lives, choos- ingwhichpeopleareworthyof being role models has become significantly harder. It may seemwrongthatyoungpeople tend to prefer shallow public figures as their idols, but this is in fact a natural part of the maturation process, experts say. Young people seek and change role models frequently as they age. Small children ob- serve the behaviour of their parents and after they start at- tending elementary school theybecomeinterestedinwhat their classmates are doing. Later, as teenagers they stop admiring their parents and pick role models on the basis of their image or personal qualit- ies, Eva Smiková, psychologist from the Research Institute for Child Psychology and Patho- psychology (VÚDPaP), told The SlovakSpectator. “Role models offer basic help and orientation, particu- larly for children and adolescents,” Smiková said. “It has been documented that rolemodelshaveanimportant role in developing one’s career aspirations, education and creationofself-image.” Among the most important factors for producing role mod- els are family, classmates, vari- ous leisure and sport centres as wellasthemedia,shesaid. Family first Small children are primar- ily observing the behaviour of their parents and later are in- terested even in their siblings’ behaviour, according to Smiková. However, even some older children positively evaluate the job performance and the pro- fessional aspects of their par- ents’ lives, while siblings may be role models in cases when they try new things, fulfil their dreams and deal with life chal- lenges, Norbert Vrabec, the head of Media Literacy Centre and head of the Media Educa- tion Department, both at The University of Ss Cyril and Methodius (UCM), told The Slovak Spectator. He referred to a study focusing on role models and media conducted by him and Dana Petranová, dean of Faculty of Mass Media Commu- nication,in2013.Thestudyana- lysed241essaysofchildrenaged mostly from 15 to 19, dozens of focus groups and question- naireswith275respondents. Thanks to television, in- ternet and social networks children can choose from a much higher number of role models then in the past. This can lead to superficial choices. However, the first and most important role models are al- ways parents, Jana Ashford, a psychologist from Alma Psy- chological Centre, told The SlovakSpectator. “It doesn’t have to be mod- el in the sense of some ideal or idol, but how parents live, which values they prefer, how they spend their time and so on,” Ashford said. “It signific- antly affects children in their presentaswellasfuturelife.” Literature also offers role models to small children, ac- cording to Smiková. Books for small boys who are focused on ideas of manhood and images of successful men are full of heroes and adventurers who are self-sufficient and strong. On the other hand, literature for small girls depicts more or less traditional women’s roles but also tell stories about young, rebelling heroines. When girls are older, rebellion is suppressed and this type of heroine is replaced by role models who can help girls to deal with their fears, insecur- ities,theirbodiesandsoon. Teenage focus on image The importance of parents decreases after children reach their teenage years. Smiková explains that generally chil- dren focus on their appear- ance during puberty because they start to think about love and relationships. Therefore they put emphasis on the im- age of their role models, in- cluding their appearance, be- haviourorlifestyle. The growing influence of popular culture and mass me- dia is followed by the rising popularity of celebrities. These people are particularly promoted by tabloid media which give children the op- portunity to identify with someone popular. In doing so, the media also offer informa- tion about behaviour models, values and standards connec- ted to celebrities. Those val- ues, including success, fame, admiration and wealth, lead to social prestige and are highlyrecognisedinsociety. “It may seem that those characteristics are shallow, but a child in this period is re- jecting parents and looking for someone more attractive,” Smiková said. “It doesn’t mean that it is good or bad, it issimplyrelatedtothisage.” Teenagers are also par- ticularly looking for role models in the spheres of life which they are interested in. If sports draw their attention they will probably have an athlete as a role model; if it is rap music, the rap artist will be preferred. It is based on personalpreferences,accord- ingtoSmiková. Young people show the most trust in people involved in the so called helping pro- fessions, such as doctors, fire- fighters or police officers. The helping professions are fre- quently,andinapositiveway, presented in the media, and UCM’s study shows that me- dia are the reason why these professions are attractive to people despite lacking per- sonalexperiencewiththem. Toreadthewholestory,please gotowww.spectator.sk. BY ROMAN CUPRIK Spectator staff Parents are often the most important role models. Photo: Sme Children as role models, even for adults CHILDREN supporting classmates suffering from cancer; a paralysed boy who, despite his disability, saved a baby from choking to death; pu- pils organising a toy drive for children in need: these are just some of the stories of children awarded the Child Deed of the Year 2013. “Letters from children and their teachers for Child Deed of the Year are my source of astonishment that children are often more mature and responsible than adults,” Erich Mistrík, a member of the award com- mission, told the Pravda daily. The commission received almost 8,200 deeds proposals and around 118,000 children voted online for the winners, according to Pravda. First grader Leo was diagnosed with cancer and had to leave school for immediate and intensive treatment. His classmates, however, showed their support, and regularly sent him sweets, pictures and homework. When they learned of the exorbitant cost of his treatment, they immediately began raising money to help Leo and his family out, even getting people outside the school to chip in. Despite all their sup- port, Leo lost his fight with the disease, and left his toys and bicycle to his friends, according to the Child Deed of the Year webpage. Although thirteen-year-old Jakub was totally paralysed in his hos- pital bed, he noticed that the baby in the next bed over had stopped breathing and was turning blue. Jakub’s mother was feeding him when she noticed that he was refusing to eat. Unable to speak, Jakub started to cry, which alerted his mother to the baby’s situation. Luckily, the baby was saved. Jakub’s condition also improved, as he is now able to walk and speak. Another winner of the award is 15-year-old Simona Ešeková, who started taking care of eight-year-old Dominika after she and her four siblings were abandoned by their mother. Ešeková helps Dominika with her homework, gets her ready each day and takes her to school, despite the fact that she is not related to her. Vlasta Jendroľová, 15, received the award when she had to take on her mother’s duties after a disease damaged her brain. Every day after school, she takes care of her mother and their animals before starting on her homework. Similarly, 15-year-old Viktória Tóthová was awarded for taking care of her immobile godmother when she was 13. Tóthová spent her summer holiday washing, feeding and massaging her god- mother. Awards also went to Rút Marcinčáková, who saved three aban- doned puppies from freezing to death, and pupils from a primary school in Prešov who organised a toy collection for disabled children. A special award went to 11-year-old Jakub Križan, who made a vow never to use vulgar language, even if pressured by his classmates. By Roman Cuprik SPECTATOR COLLEGE LESSONS Lesson 1. Fashion – January 27 Lesson 2. People and Nature – February 10 Lesson 3. Towns and Places – February 24 Lesson 4. Sport and Games – March 3 Lesson 5. Family – March 24 Lesson 6. Human Relationship – April 7 Lesson 7. Idols and Celebrities – April 21 Lesson 8. English-Speaking Countries – May 5 Lesson 9. Health Care – May 19 Lesson 10. Business English (special) – June 2 Photo: AP Sita

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Lesson 19 www.spectator.sk 21 Human Relationships Glossary abuse - zneužívanie adjust - upraviť affect - postihnúť allot - prideľovať applicant - žiadateľ approach - prístup approve - schvaľovať asylum - azyl attitude - pozícia behaviour - správanie budget - rozpočet believe - veriť burden - bremeno citizenship - občianstvo consider - zvážiť/brať na vedomie continuously - nepretržite contradict - odporovať deal with - vysporiadať sa disease - choroba diverse - rozmanitý émigrés - emigranti encounter - stretnutie exclusion - vylúčenie expenses - výdavky finally - konečne flood - záplava folk - ľudový forbid - zakazovať foreigner - cudzinec grant - priznať/udeliť hire - zamestnať immediately - okamžite include - zahŕňať knowledge - znalosť leisure - voľný čas majority - väčšina manage - podariť sa moreover - navyše native - domáci necessary - nutný owner - majiteľ petty - drobný polarise - polarizovať/rozdeľovať policy - politika poor - zlý/chabý prejudice - predsudok preserve - zachovať prevail - prevládať proper - vhodný proxy - splnomocnenec purse - peňaženka rates per capita - množstvo na osobu reach - dosiahnuť receive - prijať refer - odkázať refugee - utečenec reluctance - neochota repressive - represívny/potlačovateľský request - žiadosť reveal - odhaliť rumour - povesť Ruthenians - Rusíni sentiment - cítenie skin - pokožka slice of the pie - kúsok koláča social welfare - sociálna starostlivosť spread - šírenie state - vyhlásiť stress - prízvukovať support - podpora survey - prieskum suspicious - podozrivý threat - ohrozenia thug - násilník tram - električka wage - mzda waves - vlny whether - či Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia as well as to in- spire interest in important pub– lic issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator. Please see our on- line Spectator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, glo– ssaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. ADVERTISEMENT SP013263/003 Telling the truth about immigration WHEN Castor Enrique Sanc- hez Rodriguez, a 49-year-old English and Spanish teacher from Colombia, finally man- aged to buy an apartment in Bratislava, his neighbour ap- proached him and his friend as he was walking around the building. The neighbour asked whether he was the new own- er of the flat. “When my friend told her I was [the owner], she seemed really pleased to hear that,” Sanchez said, adding that she responded: “Thank God! You know, a rumour has been spreading that it was bought by a Colombian guy.” Such attitudes are not un- common in Slovakia and im- migrants are frequently the target of rumours that they steal jobs or abuse the social welfare system. About half of Slovaks have a negative opin- ion about immigrants and NGOs working with foreign émigrés warn that govern- ment policies might be driv- ing such social exclusion. The view that immigration is a problem is shared by 52 percent of Slovaks, with 71 percent considering foreigners a burden on the state budget and social services. Around 68 percent of Slovaks believe that migrants take jobs from nat- ives, according to the Transat- lantic Trends study conducted by the German Marshall Fund of the United States in 2013. Moreover, 63.6 percent agree that some foreigners spread dangerous diseases, according to the Slovak Office of Interna- tional Organisation for Migra- tion (IOM) study published in 2009. Poor information about foreign immigrants affects Slovaks’ decisions about whether they are willing to have foreigners as neighbours or accept blood from an im- migrant during a transfusion, Zuzana Vatráľová, the head of the Slovak office of IOM, told The Slovak Spectator. Sanchez said that he feels welcomed by most Slovaks, but notes he also has experi- enced prejudice here. “If your hair and skin are dark, for many Slovaks you are a thug or, at least, suspicious,” Sanchez said. He noted that he has experienced “many petty situations on the bus or tram when they look at you and immediately move their purses away from you”. Cheap labour and refugees Myths about immigrants vary. Those from eastern Europe and the Balkans are of- ten depicted as low wage la- bourers ready to steal the jobs of natives. However, Slovak legislation forbids employers from hiring foreigners if they are able to find a qualified em- ployee among Slovak citizens. Moreover, many foreign- ers coming to Slovakia actu- ally create job positions for natives, Elena Gallová Kriglerová from the Centre for the Research of Ethnicity and Culture (CVEK), told The Slov- ak Spectator. Another myth is that for- eigners bringing their own culture with them threaten Slovak culture, tradition or re- ligion, Kriglerová said. The IOM study also showed that the public often imagines immigrants as refugees, despite the fact that the number of asylum re- quests has fallen continu- ously since 2004, when it reached 11,395 requests. In 2013 there were just 441 re- quests, according to the In- terior Ministry. Slovakia has only ever approved 632 re- quests for asylum and granted Slovak citizenship to just 221 of those people since 1993. Reality contradicts the image that waves of immig- rants are flooding the coun- try, since foreigners made up just 1.3 percent of the people living in Slovakia in 2013, among the lowest rates per capita in the European Union. However, the fear of foreign- ers still prevails and this emo- tion produces other preju- dices, according to Vatráľová. “The sentiment of the ma- jority of society is that it has to help them [refugees], there- fore the arrival of foreigners to Slovakia means a burden and expenses [for Slovaks],” Vatráľová said. Lack of information Considering the IOM survey’s data, Slovaks’ know- ledge about foreigners is poor and they do not actively search for such information, which results in stereotypes about other cultures, Vatráľová said. The fear of the unknown also affects Slovaks’ behaviour towards foreigners. “For example, if natives fear that foreigners spread dangerous diseases, they might refuse to accept blood from a foreigner during a transfusion,” she said. On the other hand, just 6 percent of Slovaks have had a bad experience with foreign- ers, in contrast to 40 percent of those who have had good experiences, or 40 percent who have had no experience with foreigners at all. Stereo- types and a lack of knowledge about foreigners result in Slovaks’ reluctance towards accepting immigrants in the country, Vatráľová said. Some 44.6 percent of the people questioned by the IOM stated that Slovakia is a coun- try for Slovaks and it should remain that way. Moreover, 50.3 percent of respondents said that foreigners living in Slovakia should adjust to the Slovak way of living. Threat of segregation Since Slovaks lack inform- ation about foreigners and do not encounter them regularly, there are limits on how to fight against prejudices, which are spread among fam- ily members, schools and friends, Vatráľová said. She stressed that Slovaks’ opin- ions may become even more radical, referring to the IOM survey, which revealed that a majority supports stronger anti-immigration policies. To read the whole story, please go to ww.spectator.sk. Minority projects to get state funds MINORITIES living in Slovakia will receive €3,603,404 for 1,241 projects in 2014. These projects include activities of theatres and folk groups, art, educational projects, leisure activities, publishing activities, support of print media and education about minority rights. The biggest slice of the pie went to the Hungarian minority. The Government Office created a 15-person evaluation committee to decide over the distribution of funds, and the office, together with the Office of the Government Proxy for National Minorities, said that the first applicants will have money on their account in early April. “The faster approach of the government in sending dona- tions to applicants will increase the stability and the qualit- ative development of several organisations and events of ethnic minorities in our country,” Tatiana Kmecová from the Office of the Government Proxy for National Minorities told the SITA newswire. Money sent by the government is necessary for promot- ing the culture and language of national minorities living in Slovakia and allowing applicants to run activities that help preserve and develop their culture, she said. The Hungarian minority will get €1,883,057 for 737 projects; the Roma minority with 157 projects will receive €580,800 and €263,482 will go to Ruthenians. The Czech minority received €141,244 for 33 projects; Germans will get €96,604 for 13 projects and Ukrainians will get €108,142. The Polish minority wants to run 17 projects and will re- ceive €62,060; the Jewish community will see €55,547 for 18 projects; Croatians can expect €49,375; Bulgarians will get €34,215 for their 10 projects; Serbians will run seven projects with €27,703; Russians will get €21,270 for 20 projects and Moravians will be allotted €20,150 for four projects. There are also 70 projects focusing on interethnic and intercultural dialogue, which were granted €229,755. Source: SITA BY ROMAN CUPRIK Spectator staff Would you take a transfusion from a foreigner? Photo: Sme Photo: Boris Grdanoski

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Lesson 20 22 Family Glossary abuse - zneužiť advantageous - výhodný approach - prístup/osloviť arrangement - usporiadanie babysitter - opatrovateľ detí backyard - zadný dvor bond - puto/väzba cellar - pivnica census - sčítanie ľudu coexist - koexistovať cohabitation - spolužitie conduct - vypracovať counterpart - náprotivok daily schedule - denný rozvrh/režim decision - rozhodnutie disturb - rušiť double-edged - dvojsečný enough - dosť environment - prostredie escalating - zvyšujúce sa experience - skúsenosť field - pole flat - byt floor - poschodie focus - zamerať sa forecast - predpoveď handy - zručný harmful - škodlivý hesitant - váhavý hindsight - spätný pohľad hire - prenájom household - domácnosť housing unit - bytová jednotka however - avšak challenge - výzva independence - nezávislosť instead - namiesto toho instrument - nástroj intervene - zasahovať joint - spojený labour - práca lawn - trávnik lessen - znížiť maintain - udržiavať molester - sexuálne obťažujúci človek mother-in-law - svokra multigenerational - viacgeneračný necessary - nevyhnutný negotiation - vyjednávanie newswire – tlačová agentúra otherwise - inak privacy - súkromie proper - vhodný rather - skôr refuse - odmietnuť relationship - vzťah rely - spoliehať script - scenár sense - vedomie soil - pôda sort - typ spanning - preklenutie spokesman - hovorca state administration - štátna správa sword - meč tension - napätie threat - hrozba till - obrábať pôdu upbringing - výchova value - hodnota vice versa - naopak voluntary - dobrovoľný way of life - spôsob života witness - svedok worsen - zhoršiť SPECTATOR COLLEGE LESSONS Lesson 1. Fashion – January 27 Lesson 2. People and Nature – February 10 Lesson 3. Towns and Places – February 24 Lesson 4. Sport and Games – March 3 Lesson 5. Family – March 24 Lesson 6. Human Relationship – April 7 Lesson 7. Idols and Celebrities – April 21 Lesson 8. English-Speaking Countries – May 5 Lesson 9. Health Care – May 19 Lesson 10. Business English (special) – June 2 Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia as well as to in- spire interest in important pub– lic issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator. Please see our on- line Spectator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, glo– ssaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. Living in a multigenerational house WHILE young people with a partner usually leave their parents’ home, thousands of households in Slovakia still have multigenerational famil- ies. While such households lessen the effects of difficult economic times, the loss of privacy and unclear roles threaten even the most toler- antrelationships. “I see the cohabitation of multiple generations as un- comfortable for all sides,” Katarína Sirotná, a 30-year-old state administration employ- er who has been living with her parents and grandparents since childhood, told The Slovak Spectator. “Yes, they may help each other, but basedonmyownexperience,I thinkitisratherharmful.” There were 201,020 house- holds in Slovakia with three generations spanning par- ents, children and grandchil- dren, according to data from the census conducted in 2011, Statistical Office spokesman Marián Jánošík told The Slov- akSpectator. Young couples usually live together with one of their par- ents until they find their own home or make enough money to buy one, Bernardína Bodnárová, a researcher from the Institute for Labour and Family Research, a state fun- ded organisation, told The Slovak Spectator. The country’s tough economic situation makes some people more hesitant to leave their parents than they otherwise mightbe,shesaid. Slovaks traditionally lived in multigenerational house- holds because life was often bound to manual labour, and the more potential workers, the better. It was simply ad- vantageous for such families to have many people under one roof, psychologist Dagmar Kopčanová from Research In- stitute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology, told TheSlovakSpectator. However, families that de- cide to live in such households in the present should have enough space and privacy if they want to coexist peace- fully, Martin Miler, president of the Slovak Psychologists Chamber, told The Slovak Spectator. Such households should take the form of separ- ated housing units, but under one roof. In such cases, a joint household can bring advant- ages while also maintaining somesenseofprivacy. Living with parents The biggest challenge for a multigenerational household is living in a small place with shared rooms, Miler says. This was the case for Sirotná, who lived in multigenerational household in a flat, and her parents never had privacy be- causeofit,shesaid. “After some time my par- ents even lowered the number of visits in our house because our relatives were disturbing grandma and grandpa,” Sirotnásaid. Tensions arise when the older family members adopt the role of the ruler of the household. While the mother or mother-in-law usually wants to be the “queen of the kitchen”, the father or father- in-law “rules” the rest of household,Milersays. Slovak culture moved from a traditional multigen- erational living arrangement to a modern, Western way of life and the opinions of older peoplearenotvaluedashighly asinthepast,Milerexplains. “In our culture we prefer independence,”Mileradded. The situation and the at- mosphere in multigenera- tional households depends a lot on whether the arrange- ment is necessary or volun- tary between both families. Families who live together more or less involuntarily have more potential for escal- ating conflict, according to Bodnárová. “Every [family] member has his own needs, a different daily schedule, and otherwise good relationships could worsen,” Bodnárová said. “There will be problems that would not occur in cases of separatedliving.” Before she moved to Brat- islava, Kristína, a 23-year-old student, was living in a multi- generational home in Považská Bystrica with her parents on the ground floor and her grandparents on the first floor. Living with her grandparents created a lot of conflict within her family, she said. For example, Kristína’s family had a small field in its backyard and Kristína’s moth- er had to till the soil, even though she would have pre- ferred to have a lawn, because that was what her mother-in- law wanted, Kristína told The SlovakSpectator. Miler explained that con- flicts are often present in mul- tigenerational households when relatives do not agree on commonrulesinadvance. Bringing up children Naturally, multigenera- tional households affect a child’s upbringing, as gener- ally speaking, the wider and richer a social environment is, the more stimulation a child receives,Kopčanovásaid. Such households may be a pleasurable environment for children, as they usually enjoy the company of older people, and vice versa, according to Miler. Moreover, busy parents of small children may no longer need a babysitter. Older people are usually much more patient with kids and give much more love to their grandchildren than babysitters for hire, Kopčanovásaid. As a little girl, Kristína loved to be with her grandpar- ents, since they took care of her and always made sure there was good food around, she said. She also used them as an important instrument when negotiating with her parents. For example, as a child she badly wanted a rab- bit but her parents refused to buy one, she said. Therefore Kristína changed her strategy and approached her grandpar- entswiththedemand. “I persuaded my grand- father; we went to the cellar and he constructed a sort of rabbit cage because he is very handy,” Kristína said. “There was a rabbit cage, therefore a rabbit had to follow. So I got a rabbit.” To read the whole story, please visit www.spectator.sk. Focusing on kids with hardships MORE than 55,500 children were born in 2012, some 5,200 fewer than the year before, the SITA newswire reported. And according to forecasts, this number will continue to gradu- ally decrease. There were 826,516 children living in Slovakia, ages 0 to 14, in 2011, making up 15.3 percent of the whole population, according to the Slovak Statistics Office (ŠÚ). About 4,700 children lived in a foster home in 2012, which is 2,000 less than in 2000 – a result of both more people willing to adopt children and an increasing number of foster families. In 1997, just 13 children lived in foster homes while in 2012 it was 1,333, according to the Sme daily. According to the Institute for Labour and Family Re- search, about 36 percent of the 1,560 interviewed children between 14 and 16 said they had experienced some kind of vi- olence at home. More than 23 percent of them were subject to physical abuse; 20.6 percent of them experienced emotional abuse; 9.4 percent were neglected and 7.1 experienced sexual abuse, according to data collected in 2012, as reported by Sme. Since 2004, Slovak courts have sentenced more than 1,700 people for sexual abusing children younger than 15. In 2012, courts sentenced 262 abusers, the highest number in one year, while that same year another 77 cases of child sexual abuse were reported. However, those numbers are inaccur- ate since many sexual abuse cases go unreported. Profes- sionals say that molesters sexually abuse children repeatedly or often target several victims. The Slovak Labour Office has noticed more than 4,500 ser- iously impaired children younger than 18. However, it does not gather statistics on mildly or moderately impaired chil- dren, according to Sme. By Roman Cuprik BY ROMAN CUPRIK Spectator staff Grandparents can help with children. Photo: Sme Photo: AP Andy Wong

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Lesson 21 www.spectator.sk 23 Sports and Games Glossary accompany - sprevádzať accusation - žaloba alleged - údajný apology - ospravedlnenie appreciate - vážiť si approximately - približne athlete - športovec attempt - pokus avoid - vyhnúť sa base-group - základná skupina beverage - nápoj biathlete - biatlonista boast - chvastanie budget - rozpočet cast doubts - spochybňovať circumstances - okolnosti cite - uviesť claim - tvrdiť committee - výbor comparable - porovnateľný consequently - teda contemporary - moderný/súčasný costs - náklady cross-country - bežecké lyžovanie crucial - rozhodujúci detain - zadržať development - vývoj dignity - dôstojnosť disappear - zmiznúť disappointment - sklamanie dispute - spor eventually - nakoniec expenditures - výdavky face - čeliť figure skating - krasokorčuľovanie grass-roots level - koreň/začiatok hang - visieť highlight - zdôrazniť hire - najať hold nerve - udržať nervy chess - šach insufficient - nedostatočný meanwhile - zatiaľ medal per capita - medaila na obyvateľa mixed relay - zmiešaná štafeta modestly - skromne municipality - obec narrowly - tesne obligatory - povinný outstanding - vynikajúci overzealous - príliš horlivý participate - zúčastniť sa performance - výkon physical education - telesná výchova playing field - ihrisko properly - správne public funds - verejné prostriedky pursuit - stíhanie raise - vychovať recognise - uznať severe - drsný/ostrý slice - kúsok spirits - tvrdý alkohol standings - poradie strip - odobrať struggle - mať ťažkosti target - cieľ via - cez violation of rules - porušenie pravidiel voucher - poukaz Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia as well as to in- spire interest in important pub– lic issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator. Please see our on- line Spectator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, glo– ssaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. Slovakia struggles to raise top athletes A GOLD medal hanging around the neck of a Slovak athlete participating in one of the world’s most recognised sport competitions is a picture that is increasingly rare. Ob- servers warn that a generation of top class sportsmen and women is slowly disappearing as few newcomers have the potential of replacing them. Some trace it back to the grass- roots level, with fewer chil- dren coming to sport clubs. “We will not have absolute elite [athletes] if we do not have a base group and if I want to find a talented child, they first have to do something,” Slovak Tennis Association President Tibor Macko told The Slovak Spectator. “When I need to choose, I am choosing from some group and the big- ger the group, the higher the chance I will find someone trulytalented.” The number of children willing to play sports is falling or stagnating, Miroslav Kucharič from the Represent- ation Committee of Slovak Shooting Federation, told The Slovak Spectator. Parents are frequently too busy or do not have enough money to cover their children’s sport activit- ies, which are often very ex- pensive,hesaid. Consequently, results in children’s sporting competi- tions are getting worse, Peter Korčok, the head of the Slovak Athletic Federation, told The SlovakSpectator. “In general, there is a lower quality of sports performances in particular [athletic] categor- ies, which is partially caused by contemporary problems,” Korčok said. “Children have many other possibilities and attractions, while sports are not a natural part of everyone’s dailyregimen.” The state system of sup- porting young athletes is insuf- ficient, according to sports as- sociations, which cite a lack of money, playing fields and oth- er infrastructure. Moreover, the number and recognition of obligatory physical education classes at primary and second- ary schools should increase. Observers point out that many children and their parents ac- tually try to avoid them. Growing costs There were 13,069 sport clubs and more than 661,000 registered athletes in Slovakia at the end of 2011, while chil- dren accounted for just a quarter of this number, ac- cording to a study of KPMG company ordered by the Slov- ak Olympic Committee, the Šport daily reported. The average cost to parents for children’s sport activities tops €1,025 per year. Tennis is the most expensive individual sport, which demands about €6,630 per year on average, ac- cording to the study. Ice hockey is the leader among team sports, costing parents around €4,200 per year. Twenty-four of the 116 analysed sports, such as golf or figure skating, cost from €801 to €1,600; another 24 sports, such as archery or ca- noeing, cost from €400 to €801, and 57 sports, including football or basketball, cost from €81 to €400 per year. Chess and athletics are among the 21 least expensive sports, costing less than €80 per year, according to the KPMG report. However, sport federation representatives questioned those numbers, saying there are huge differences in par- ents’ expenditures. Some par- ents are willing to pay great sums of money to see their children’s skills improve while others are not. “For example, when par- ents of an 8-year-old child hire a personal trainer and pay for every hour, gym and supplies, those expenses can reach astronomic numbers,” Macko said. “On the other hand, the effect of those in- vestments is not comparable and it is not true that people who do this have better results.” In skiing, the amount of money spent on children varies significantly depend- ing on the gear, Petra Pen- kert, secretary general of the Slovak Ski Association, told The Slovak Spectator. Natur- ally, expenses will also in- crease if parents have to cov- er travel expenses and hotel rooms when accompanying their child to competitions, she said. To read the full story, please go to www.spectator.sk. Slovak athletes take just one medal at the Sochi Winter Olympics RUSSIAN-BORN biathlete Anastazia Kuzmina is the only Slovak represent- ative, among 57 athletes, who brought home a medal from this year’s Winter Olympic Games in the Russian city of Sochi. Since Slovakia claimed one gold medal, it finished 16th in the final medal per capita count. Known for her problems with shooting, Kuzmina held her nerve, missed no target and took gold in the biathlon women’s sprint. In addi- tion to her outstanding performance in the sprint, she also placed sixth in the women’s 10-kilometre pursuit and was a member of a team parti- cipating in a 2x6-kilometre women’s relay plus a 2x7.5-kilometre mixed men and women relay, in which she placed fifth, the TASR newswire re- ported. “I look forward to celebrating that,” Kuzmina told the press. “I was responding to those congratulations for three days.” A big surprise was that 23-year-old skier Adam Žampa narrowly missed out on a medal in the super combined after posting the best sla- lom run of the day to rise from 27th to fifth place in the standings. He also placed sixth in slalom. During the press conference, Žampa modestly pointed out that while his placing sixth is appreciated, Kuzmina was apologetic for her sixth placement in the 10-kilometre pursuit. “I would like to highlight Anastazia’s success. Especially when somebody apologises for sixth place,” Žampa said, as quoted by TASR. “It is weird that I boast about such a result.” The Slovak Olympic Committee also appreciated the performance of Martin Bajčičák, who ended 14th in men’s cross-country mass start free, and Nicole Rajičová, who placed 21st in the women’s figure skating short programme. Hockey players are not satisfied But much of the news coming from the games was bad for Slovaks, including a disappointing showing by the men’s ice hockey team that saw the coach eventually offer his resigna- tion. The Slovak Ice Hockey Federation Executive Committee re- fused Coach Vladimír Vůjtek’s resignation offer as well as that of General Manager Otto Sýkora. The team finished 11th out of the 12 participating teams, losing all of its matches. The alleged dispute between top players Zdeno Chára and Miroslav Šatan, who did not play in Sochi, was one of the reason’s for offering to resign, Vůjtek said, as quoted by the SITA newswire. “The last days’ circumstances, the bad result in Sochi and neg- ative, severe and untrue stories are behind my decision,” Vůjtek said, as quoted by SITA. “One just hardly deals with [the accusation] when someone calls you a liar. It is a big shock for my dignity.” However, the whole committee, along with 10 of Slovakia’s top hockey players, gave their full support to Vůjtek and Sýkora, ac- cording to SITA. Overzealous fan Slovak Olympic Committee representatives had to deal with just one violation of rules in Sochi, said Jana Gantnerová, the head of Slovak Olympic delegation, as quoted by SITA. During the one of Slovakia’s ice hockey matches a member of the Slovak delegation, Boris Vlha, jumped over the barrier in an at- tempt to reach the hockey puck. Security detained him and removed him from stadium. The So- chi games directorate dealt with the incident but, luckily for Vlha, it did not strip him of his accreditation, according to SITA. “I hope he will not face some additional complications because of that,” Gantnerová said. “It was really a serious delinquency.” By Roman Cuprik with press reports BY ROMAN CUPRIK Spectato staff Tennis is among the most expensive sports. Photo: Sme SPECTATOR COLLEGE LESSONS Lesson 1. Fashion – January 27 Lesson 2. People and Nature – February 10 Lesson 3. Towns and Places – February 24 Lesson 4. Sport and Games – March 3 Lesson 5. Family – March 24 Lesson 6. Human Relationship – April 7 Lesson 7. Idols and Celebrities – April 21 Lesson 8. English-Speaking Countries – May 5 Lesson 9. Health Care – May 19 Lesson 10. Business English (special) – June 2 Photo: AP Sita

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Lesson 22 24 People and Nature Glossary abroad - v zahraničí abundant - hojný accustomed - zvyknutý altitude - nadmorská výška ambient - okolité annual - ročný array - rad associate - spájať s bask - vyhrievať sa behaviour - správanie burden - záťaž cautious - opatrný claim - vyžiadať si condition - podmienka conduct - vykonať consequence - dôsledok deepen - prehĺbovať den - brloh deplete - minúť development - vývoj dormant - spiaci ensue - vyplynúť exceed - presiahnuť extinction - vyhynutie extraordinary - nezvyčajný flood - potopa flowering - kvitnutie fluctuating - kolísavý forecast - predpoveď gear - výbava geese - husi grape - hrozno guarantee - garancia heat waves - horúčavy humidity - vlhkosť insects - hmyz irrigation - zavlažovanie lack - nedostatok latitude - zemepisná šírka lizard - jašterica Lyme disease - Lymská borelióza mature - zrelý measure - opatrenie migrate - presúvať sa mitigate - zmierniť noticeable - pozorovateľný outweigh - prevážiť over reproduction - premnoženie pests - škodci pollen - peľ precipitation - zrážky premature death - predčasná smrť presume - predpokladať prolonged - predĺžený proper - vhodný pull out - vytiahnuť recent - nedávny reverse - zvrátiť rip off - vytrhnúť river flow - prietok rieky root - koreň snowball fight - guľovačka species - druhy spell - obdobie storage - skladovanie sudden - náhly sullen - mrzutý threat - hrozba tick - kliešť transmit - prenášať trash can - odpadkový kôš viper - zmija weather variability - zmeny počasia weeds - buriny winter hibernation - zimný spánok Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia as well as to in- spire interest in important public is- sues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator. Please see our online Spec- tator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, gloss- aries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. Global warming hits close to home GREEN grass, flowering trees and flying insects are a sur- prise to see in early January, a time Slovaks normally asso- ciate more with snowball fights. With an average annual air temperature that has risen by around 2 degrees Celsius over the last century, climato- logists say it is time for the country to prepare for in- creased plant allergens, lower water supplies and falling in- come from tourism. “Thanks to all of those neg- ative effects the number of ski resort visitors is decreasing,” Vladimír Onderčanin, the winter sports gear seller, told The Slovak Spectator. “Cus- tomers who used to visit the Low Tatra Mountains re- peatedly during Christmas, winter and spring break or Easter, are currently choosing different options for their vacations.” Along with increased temperatures, precipitation decreased by around 5.6 per- cent in the last 100 years and relative humidity by approx- imately 5 percent, according to the webpage of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Insti- tute (SHMÚ). In 2013 Slovakia experienced four days with super tropical nights, which means that the temperature did not fall below 25 degrees Celsius at least in one place. This is the most such nights since record keeping began, Milan Lapin, head of the Divi- sion of meteorology and cli- matology at the Comenius University in Bratislava, told The Slovak Spectator. Annual levels of precipita- tion have been increasingly fluctuating. For example, 2003 saw only 74 percent of the yearly average, while in 2010 it rained 164 percent above the average, Pavel Šťastný of the SHMÚ meteorological service department told The Slovak Spectator. This results in peri- ods of flooding and dry spells, according to him. Average temperatures could increase between 2 to 4 degrees Celsius by 2075, which would mean that the current climate of the Danubian Low- land in southern Slovakia would spread to the Liptov re- gion of northern Slovakia. Higher temperatures would negatively affect water bal- ance, agriculture, biodiversity and the health of the popula- tion, according to the SHMÚ. The climate has heavily influenced socio-economic development and still does, Jozef Minďaš, chairman of the Board of Ecological and Forest Agency (EFRA) and former head of the Slovak national forest company Lesy SR, told The Slovak Spectator. “Anthropogenic climate change significantly speeds up those changes which are noticeable even during one human generation,” Minďaš said. “That is why those changes, which we observe, are so extraordinary, intense and will deepen.” High-altitude grapes Climate change will affect Slovak agriculture both posit- ively and negatively since higher temperatures extend the growing season but cause problems to farmers in regions where summer heat waves already limit production, ac- cording to the final report of the Climatic Change Con- sequences and Adaptations project, conducted by the SHMÚ in cooperation with the EFRA and the Association for Economic Modelling, Forecasts and Analyses (EMPA) in 2011. Thanks to higher temper- atures, farmers are able to grow warm weather plants like corn and tomatoes even in northern Slovakia at 600 metres above sea level, ac- cording to Lapin. “The area proper for grow- ing more demanding fruit trees has extended,” Lapin said. “Even grapes were able to mature under the Tatra mountains in some years.” On the other hand, the negative consequences of higher temperatures will outweigh the positive as the related heat waves, floods, weather variability and im- migration of new biological species including microorgan- isms, pathogens, weeds and pests result, Lapin said. “It is almost certain that some original plant and animal species will go extinct while others might experience calamity-level over-population,” Lapin added. Climate change will affect mainly animals and plants that cannot adapt to new en- vironments quickly. Since an- imals are mobile they will be migrating to cooler areas to the north, to be replaced by new species coming to Slovakia, for example, from the Balkans. At present, there are several in- sect species and other animals living in Slovakia, which were not observed here 30 years ago, according to Minďaš. “Plants are in a signific- antly more complicated situ- ation since a tree simply can- not rip its roots off and move to another, more suitable, place,” Minďaš said. Forecasts say that long- term river flow will decrease 25 percent by 2075. The lack of water together with weather extremes and prolonged peri- ods of hot and cold will be- come a burden on Slovak agri- culture, increasing its de- mand on water. The major ag- ricultural production areas in southern Slovakia are already suffering from lower precipit- ation, meaning additional spending on irrigation is likely, according to the SHMÚ. When it comes to forest- centered economics, the report on climate change con- sequences presumes that pro- duction will decrease by 5.5 percent until 2050 – a €123 mil- lion loss – should nothing be done to mitigate or reverse these trends. Along with falling production fewer numbers of workers will be needed, result- ing in the reduction of around 3,000 forest jobs by 2050. Prepare for allergies Climate change is a bur- den on people’s health all over the world and leads to prema- ture deaths due to extreme weather. Warmer winters and prolonged dry and wet periods will favour an array of dan- gerous insect and various or- ganisms which have been un- able to survive in Slovakia’s climate to date. Therefore people, animals, plants and trees might suffer from dis- eases which have been rare or generally unknown for Slov- aks, according to Lapin. To read the whole story, please go to www.spectator.sk. Winter came late this season. Photo: Sme BY ROMAN CUPRIK Spectator staff SPECTATOR COLLEGE LESSONS Lesson 1. Fashion – January 27 Lesson 2. People and Nature – February 10 Lesson 3. Towns and Places – February 24 Lesson 4. Sport and Games – March 10 Lesson 5. Human Relationship – March 24 Lesson 6. Family – April 7 Lesson 7. Idols and Celebrities – April 21 Lesson 8. English-Speaking Countries – May 5 Lesson 9. Health Care – May 19 Lesson 10. Business English (special) – June 2 Weird weather confuses animals HIKERS had to be more cautious in mid-January as unusually warm winter pulled bears out of their dens. Instead of remaining deep in winter hibernation, they were out and about, hungry and nervous. The unseasonably warm temperatures confused not only bears but also lizards and vipers, which were basking in the sun as wild geese flew overhead, zoologist Miroslav Saniga from the Institute of Forest Ecology of Slovak Academy of Sciences said of recent unusual animal behavior. These normally dormant or migrating animals have remained active, the Sme daily reported on January 14. “When it is warm enough, [the viper] wakes up and goes out to check whether spring has come,” Saniga said. Tourists should be careful, awakened bears can be sullen and nervous, Saniga said, adding that of the eight bear dens in the Great Fatra, a mountain range in northern Slovakia that he monitors, five were empty. “If these winters continue, [bears] will have to give up their winter sleep,” Saniga said. He added that further problems may ensue as active bears de- plete their fat reserves and become hungry. If they do not fall asleep again they will search for food in trash cans and other places close to humans. Tourists could encounter a bear in the Great and Lesser Fatra, Tatras, Starohorské vrchy mountains or in the Poľana mountain range. People should not be afraid to go into the forest, but they should have some respect towards those animals, says Saniga. He advised tourists to talk to each other while hiking so that bears hear them and avoid confrontation. “Bears are very shy,” Saniga said. “They attack mostly in self-defence.” Source: The Sme daily Photo: AP Brian Melley

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Lesson 23 www.spectator.sk 25 Fashion Glossary abroad - zahraničie adorn - ozdobiť attention - pozornosť attire - odev awareness - povedomie beverage - nápoj blaze a trail - raziť stopu brand - značka branch - odvetvie breakthrough - prielom ceremonial - slávnosť collection - kolekcia confectioner - pekár consist - pozostávať cook - kuchár craft-maker - remeselník cravat - nákrčník crucial - rozhodujúci cultural heritage - kultúrne dedičstvo degree - stupeň effort - úsilie go to extraordinary lengths - vyvinúť nezvyčajné úsilie fancy - módny/efektný fashion industry - módny priemysel flagship - vlajková loď graduate - absolvent guarantor - garant handmade - ručná práca headband - čelenka importance - dôležitosť in this way - týmto spôsobom incarnation- stelesnenie internship - stáž knowledge - vedomosti long sleeve - dlhý rukáv mass-produce - chŕliť meal vouchers - stravné lístky motif - motív anthem - hymna negotiation - vyjednávanie newswire - tlačová agentúra opportunity - príležitosť originate - vzniknúť outer jacket - vrchná bunda outfit - oblečenie pattern - vzor payroll taxes - odvody private - súkromný producer - výrobca professionalising - profesionalizácia proper - vhodný public figures - osobnosti verejného života release - vydať shortage - nedostatok showrooms - predvádzacie miestnosti soft-shell jacket - tenká bunda spoil - kaziť staff - štáb statement - vyhlásenie struggle - zápasiť survival - prežitie sustain - vydržať sweater - sveter taboo - tabu task - úloha tight margins - takmer nulový profit turtleneck - rolák vocational school - stredná priemyselná škola vow - sľub wage - výplata warm-up pants - otepľovačky Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia as well as to in- spire interest in important public is- sues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator. Please see our online Spec- tator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, gloss- aries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. Designers wrestle with business realities SURVIVAL is the biggest chal- lenge for Slovakia’s fashion industry, say designers, with recent graduates and young people struggling the most. However, awareness within the fashion community is leading to opportunities for young people to present and, eventually, sell their models. The fashion design com- munity is divided into two groups, Júlia Sabová, the head of Department of Textile Design at the Academy of Fine Arts and Design, told The Slovak Spectator. The first is very popular and enjoys me- dia attention, while a second consists of equally talented but as yet unknown design- ers. She added that the media spoils the image of Slovak fashion by presenting mainly fashion shows, which serve more as a presentation of well-known public figures than a show focused on qual- ity designs. The real fashion business is something different from fancy pictures and the small Slovak market means that designers must go to ex- traordinary lengths to sus- tain their own brand. There are no big fashion firms in Slovakia, while there are plenty of designers looking for work, Miriam Iglárová, the guarantor of the fashion design field of study at the Secondary Vocational School of Samuel Mikovíny in Banská Štiavnica, told The Slovak Spectator. This shortage of work has led many of the top talents to look elsewhere. “Skilled graduates of art schools often work abroad since they would not find a job in their branch in Slovakia,” Michaela Bednárová, textile designer and founder of Puojd fashion design brand, told The Slovak Spectator. Connecting fashion and business Bratislavské módne dni (Bratislava Fashion Days) and Bratislava Fashion Week are among the best known fash- ion events in Slovakia. The tight margins on even these flagship events were evident as the 2013 incarnation of Brat- islava Fashion Week had to be cancelled after a crucial spon- sor from the Czech Republic fell through. In an effort to find an alternative, some de- signers together with the Slovak Fashion Council (SFC), the professional organisation, and OLO-dressing, a joint fashion project of Czech de- signers, created Fashion Live. Dana Kleinert, a fashion and textile designer and one of the SFC’s founders, considers Fashion Live a great success for Slovak fashion. In contrast to most celebrity-driven fash- ion events, Fashion Live offered opportunities for pro- ducers to sell their goods and organised lectures for young designers, Kleinert told The Slovak Spectator. “At the beginning it looked really bad that we are not able to make an event, but it [Fash- ion Live] turned to be the best event in Slovakia in terms of professionalising fashion,” Kleinert said. “There were showrooms, business con- tracts and the fashion was sold there.” Some 34 designers presen- ted their designs and were able to sell their goods for sev- eral thousand euros. Four brands were contracted to produce for shops in Prague, while another four started ne- gotiations on doing so, Klein- ert said. Foreign professionals from the fashion industry shared their knowledge. Helping young designers As established Slovak fash- ion designers and event organ- isers realise the importance of experience, they often provide the opportunity for young de- signers to work for them or present their models in fash- ion shows, Iglárová said. One designer who runs her own studio is Lýdia Eckhardt, who has been one of the best- known faces in Slovakia’s fashion industry for 23 years. In November 2013, she hosted the Lýdia Eckhardt and Young Talents event supporting a young fashion designer, sev- eral confectioners, cooks and alcoholic beverage producers. “I decided to help young artists and businessmen be- cause I realise how hard it is [to run a business] in our small market, especially for young unknown artists,” Eckhardt told The Slovak Spectator. “Many people helped me when I started so I want to re- turn something in this way.” Eckhardt noted that she grew up in the communist era, during which private businesses were a taboo. After the regime collapsed, she de- cided to open a salon in 1991 and hired 10 employees. “I struggled financially during the first five years – how to get money for wages; I could not understand why the employer has to pay payroll taxes, pay for holidays, or pay for meal vouchers,” Eckhardt said. “I [was prepared to] close the salon every day!” That hard road has led many young designers try and gain experience abroad through unpaid internships at well-known foreign ateliers, Sabová said. “That is why I do not want to accept many people to my courses, just three or four per class, because I do not want to mass-produce designers,” Sabová said. “I feel sorry for them when they are unable to find a job.” Fresh winds for fashion Despite the tough busi- ness climate there are some brands and shops of young de- signers which were able to find their customers and gain attention. Sabová mentioned designer Lenka Sršňová, who organises creative presenta- tions with live music – which is unconventional in Slovakia – and Andrea Paldan, who produces fashion for golfers. To read the whole story please visit www.spectator.sk. Even young designers can make it into the shows. Photo: Sme To Sochi with love FOLK patterns, hearts and words from the national anthem will ad- orn the uniforms of Slovak athletes at the Winter Olympic Games in Sochi,Russia,settorunfromFebruary7to23. The main motif of Slovak attire will be based on a traditional folk pattern originating from the village of Čičmany in northern Slov- akia. “We want to continue [using the] folk traditions and motifs of our cultural heritage,” František Chmelár, the head of the Slovak OlympicCommittee(SOV),saidinareleasedstatement. The collection consists of three models for men and three for women. The first outfit is meant for the ceremonial vow to be taken in front of President Ivan Gašparovič and consists of a red or blue sweater,blacktrousersandadark-bluet-shirt. A second model will be used during the opening ceremonial. The women’s attire consists of a black and white outer jacket, white warm-up pants, white soft-shell jacket, black turtleneck, cap, gloves and scarf. The men’s model is similar with the colour scheme slightlyaltered. The third outfit has been designated as “medals clothing” and consists of a black and white outer jacket, soft-shell trousers, a long sleeve t-shirt, vest, headband, gloves and cravat with Čičmany pat- tern. “The SOV staff for Sochi Olympics had a very difficult task choosing the proper type of clothes consideringthe temperaturedif- ferences there,” Janka Gantnerová, the leader of Slovak Olympic delegation, told the TASR newswire. “It will be 14 to 20 degrees Celsius close to the sea and from 0 to -10 degrees Celsius in the mountains.” After four years, the national hockey team changed its attire, which will now bear the words of the Slovak national anthem. The uniformsarewhiteandblue,accordingtotheSITAnewswire. “It was a great feeling to wear this beautiful uniform,” left wing- er Milan Bartovič said, as quoted by SITA. “I feel very positively about it;theanthemontheuniformisagreatidea.” ByRomanCuprik BY ROMAN CUPRIK Spectator staff SPECTATOR COLLEGE LESSONS Lesson 1. Fashion – January 27 Lesson 2. People and Nature – February 10 Lesson 3. Towns and Places – February 24 Lesson 4. Sport and Games – March 10 Lesson 5. Human Relationship – March 24 Lesson 6. Family – April 7 Lesson 7. Idols and Celebrities – April 21 Lesson 8. English-Speaking Countries – May 5 Lesson 9. Health Care – May 19 Lesson 10. Business English (special) – June 2 Photo: Sme

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Lesson 24 26 Travelling Glossary abroad – v zahraničí according to – podľa accuracy – presnosť add – dodať airline holding companies – letecké spoločnosti amid – uprostred background – pozadie bankruptcy – krach be able to finish – schopný dokončiť carry – niesť carry on – udržiavať v chode cite – uvádzať/citovať common sense – sedliacky rozum consolidation – konsolidácia customer – zákazník daily – denník delay – meškanie despite – napriek disappear – zmiznúť drop in demand – pokles v dopyte during – počas economic growth – ekonomický rast employee – zamestnanec encounter – naraziť na evolve – vyvíjať expel – vylúčiť fixed expenses – fixné výdavky focus on – zamerať sa na go belly up – skončiť (idióm) however – avšak inadequately – neprimerane increase – nárast indications – indícia/náznak instance – príklad insurance company – poisťovňa involve – zahŕňať kick out – vyhodiť z machine gun – samopal market share – podiel na trhu notice – všimnúť si numerous – početný obviously – očividne occur – objaviť sa outbound departure – vycestovanie particular – jednotlivý period – obdobie police officer – policajt predict – predpovedať presume – predpokladať price to performance ratio – pomer cena-výkon prone – náchylný provide – poskytnúť purification – očistenie rather – rašej reason – dôvod receive – dostať recent – minulý recipe – recept recognise – rozlíšiť result – výsledok safer bet – bezpečnejšia voľba saturated market – nasýtený trh season – sezóna sensitive – citlivý series – séria spokesman – hovorca strand – zanechať struggle – zápasiť s sufficient – dostatočný suggest – navrhovať/naznačovať supplier – dodávateľ survey – prieskum survive – prežiť/vydržať suspicious – podozrivý tend to – inklinovať k threat – hrozba tour – zájazd underway – v pohybe/v plnom prúde usually – zvyčajne verify – overiť si via social networks – cez sociálne siete Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia as well as to inspire interest in important public issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator and runs with the support of Union poisťovňa a.s. Please see our online Spectator College section at www.spectator.sk for articles, glossaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. Travel agencies struggling FOUR travel agencies went bankrupt this year, stranding more than a 1,000 customers in foreign countries. Conflict in the Arab World, a saturated market and continued slow economic growth were among the leading causes of collapse, as experts suggest that a “purification” of the market maybeunderway. The first travel agency to go belly up this year was Tip Tour, which closed in May after 23 years on the Slovak market. The second was A-Tour, which went out of business on July 29, with 88 clients in Bulgaria. A-Tour’s insurance company Allianz provided transport for tourists from Bulgaria via bus. One month later, Best Choice went bankrupt, reasoning that political problems in many of the destinations it offered led to a drop in demand. At the time, Best Choice had 149 cus- tomers abroad threatened with beingkickedoutoftheirhotels. “I will not forget this tour to Tunis so easily,” Emília Švecová, a Best Choice client from Bratislava, told the Hospodárske Noviny economic daily on August 6. After having her money and mobile phone stolen, she encountered a protest involving explosions and numerous police officers carryingmachineguns. “Finally, they wanted to kick us out of the hotel at 13:30 and leave us outside on the street because our travel agency did not pay,” Švecová said. Most recently, Medina Tours closed its doors on Au- gust 17 with some 850 custom- ers abroad, who were able to finish their holidays without complications. Medina cited the bankruptcy of its mother company, according to Hospodárske Noviny. During the last 11 years, 12 travel agen- cies disappeared, according to The General Secretary of Slovak Association of Travel Agents (SACKA) Ivan Schwarz, who added that usually smaller travel agencies tended to go bankrupt, the Pravda daily re- ported. “This is the first season in history when we noticed the bankruptcy of so many travel agencies,” Schwarz told Pravda. Purifying the market The main reason for this series of bankruptcies is that too many agencies offer similar products, Róbert Žember, the coordinator at Hechter Travel Agency, told The Slovak Spec- tator. Jana Zedníková, the man- ager of Satur Company, agreed, saying there are too many play- ers for such a small market. “Mainly the strong travel agencies will survive,” she told Hospodárske Noviny. Agencies with sufficient financial reserves and those which did not focus on North African countries did not suffer from the crisis so much, the director of Europäische Re- iseversicherung AG Slovakia insurance company, Miloš Kmety, told The Slovak Spec- tator. “I would rather call it the purification process [of the market] expelling weaker subjects,” Kmety said. “Please notice that during this period some agencies have grown and increased their market share.” Despite experiences with bankrupted travel agencies in Slovakia in recent years, it is impossible to recognise agen- cies with financial problems. In the past, there were some indications, for instance, if an agency’s employees did not communicate with customers, or if people did not receive ser- vices they were promised. However, no such thing oc- curred in the bankruptcies this year, Ivan Šidla, the spokes- person for Invia online travel agency, told the Nový Čas daily. “I do not know any simple recipe”for recognising a travel agency in trouble, Kmety said. “I am afraid that even insur- ance companies do not have enough information to predict how the season will evolve and [presume] the economic result of travel agencies with suffi- cient accuracy.” Travel agencies that went bankrupt carried on with nor- mal business to the last mo- ment, Kmety said, only partic- ular suppliers, such as hotel companies or airline holding companies, could see signs of problems in the form of delayed payments. If the worst happens... With less cash on hand, smaller travel agencies are more sensitive to economic turbulence, but this does not mean that they are prone to bankruptcy, Kmety said. Usu- ally they have a small number of employees and offices, so fixed expenses are lower in comparison to bigger agencies. Still, generally speaking, big- ger travel agencies with more than 10,000 customers which offer destinations in many for- eign countries should be a safer bet, he said. Šidla argues that the size of the agency is not the main is- sue. “It is very suspicious when, in some cases, the price is obviously inadequately low and, personally, I would use common sense and evaluate the situation as suspicious,” Šidla told Nový Čas. Clients should check the amount of insurance on a giv- en holiday package and verify it at the relevant insurance company, Žember added. He agreed that people should not focus just on price but rather evaluate the price to perform- ance ratio of the trip and the background of the travel agency. “Today, normal travel agencies communicate with clients even via various social networks and if a client sees some censorship or reluctance to provide an explanation, this fact may also make a differ- ence [between travel agencies],” Žember said. After realising that a travel agency has gone bankrupt, customers should remain calm and contact the related insur- ance company, according to Žember. Kmety agrees, adding that a good insurance com- pany will inform its clients about the bankruptcy of their agency. “The main goal of every in- surance company must be a satisfied client,” Kmety said. “Thus, the first information about the collapse of a travel agency must come to the cli- ent at the initiative of the in- surance company, which must also inform [the client] on what to do next.” Agency bankruptcies left some tourists stranded. Photo: Sme Croatia is top vacation destination ABOUT one in four Slovaks travel on holiday without ever us- ing the services of travel agencies. In general, there were 582,024 outbound departures of Slovak citizens who travelled abroad on holiday using a travel agency in 2012, while the number of days spent in foreign countries totalled 4,775,844, with the average length of stay being 8.2 days. Some 36 percent of Slovaks use travel agencies regularly and 38 percent use them occasionally, according to an inter- net survey of 1,500 people conducted by the NMS Market Re- search agency and Heureka.sk, the SITA newswire reported on September 12. Cars are the favourite means of transport for people trav- elling without an agency, with 73 percent opting to drive, 17 percent preferring planes, 6 percent using buses and 4 per- cent trains. The most popular destination in 2012 was Croatia, since 116,784 trips were made there. Turkey was the number two destination, accounting for 90,295 travels. Bulgaria ranked third with 56,790 trips. More than half of the trips (384,927) abroad in 2012 were from the Bratislava Region, according to the Slovak Statistics Office (ŠÚ). Slovaks spent more than €1.3 billion on travelling, aver- aging €708 for each trip. On shorter trips Slovaks spent a total of €107,689, with each one averaging €262, according to ŠÚ. A lack of finances was the reason 50 percent of Slovaks did not take a holiday in 2012. Meanwhile, 21 percent did not travel due to personal reasons and 11 percent preferred to stay at home with family and friends. Just 5 percent of Slov- aks did not go on holiday because of work and 6 percent cited a lack of time, according to a European Commission report published in March 2013. By Roman Cuprik BY ROMAN CUPRIK Spectator staff ADVERTISEMENT SP013162/001 Soon-yi studying classical music and Slovak language:-) Healthinsuranceforforeigners „ It covers all my general medical treatment, first aid and my medical ex- penses. This way I get the same health insurance and care as if I really was a Slovak citizen.“ For more information on the product see www.union.sk/ health-insurance-for-foreigners Člen skupiny Achmea 

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 Photo: Vladimír Šimíček SME

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Lesson 25 www.spectator.sk 27 People and Society Spectator College is a programme to support the study and teaching of English in Slovakia as well as to inspire interest in important public issues among young people. The project was created by The Slovak Spectator with the sup- port of Sugarbooks, a distributor of books. Plea- se see our online Spectator College section atwww.spectator.sk for articles, glossaries and tips for exercises which can be used in English lessons. SP013011/006 ADVERTISEMENT Vocabulary allocate - prideliť, rozdeliť alter - zmeniť arising - vyplývajúci assess - posúdiť attention - pozornosť attitude - postoj be aware of - uvedomovať si civic - občiansky commitment - záväzok conduct - vykonať consider - považovať contract - zmluva corporate - podnikový counter-value - protihodnota cover - pokrývať crucial - rozhodujúci current - súčasný deadline - lehota declare - vyhlásiť development - rozvoj disadvantage - nevýhoda distribute - prerozdeliť diverse - rozmanitý donate - darovať during - počas encourage - podporovať ensure - zaistiť enterprise - podnik entity - entita/objekt equal - rovnaký experience - skúsenosť explain - vysvetliť extend - rozšíriť follow - dodržiavať/riadiť sa force - vynútiť formula - vzorec foundation - nadácia fulfilling - plnenie funding - financovanie fundraising - fundraising generally - zvyčajne government - vláda challenge - výzva immediate - bezprostredne impact - účinok implementation - uskutočnenie, uplatnenie improve - zvýšiť, zlepšiť in the event - v prípade include - obsahovať interrupt - prerušiť knowledge - znalosť move - pohyb/krok neighbour - sused/blížny NGO - mimovládna organizácia non-governmental - mimovládny participation - účasť perform - vykonať philanthropy - filantropia plenipotentiary - splnomocnenec possibility - možnosť preservation - zachovanie public affairs - verejné záležitosti purpose - účel rather - skôr reach - dosiahnuť refine - zlepšovať, kultivovať regardless - bez ohľadu na reveal - odhaliť sceptical - skeptický shape - podoba significant - významný silent - tichý sponsorship - sponzorstvo sufficiently - dostatočne sustainability - udržateľnosť tax - daň term - termín tool - nástroj trigger - spúšťať underlying - základný underwent - prešiel valid - platný volunteerism - dobrovoľníctvo weak - slabý widen - rozšíriť willingness - ochota Third sector facing hard times APRIL 2 is the deadline this year for filing tax returns and paying taxes. Taxpayers can again choose to assign 2 per- cent of their taxes to non-go- vernmental organisations. Though both Plenipotentiary of the Slovak Government for the Development of Civil So- ciety Filip Vagač and the Pontis Foundation consider the 2-per- cent assignment crucial for the funding of NGOs, the govern- ment is planning to gradually reduce the sum, so that in 2019 it will stand at 0.5 percent for companies. Both Vagač and Petra Nagyová, Pontis’ PR ma- nager, consider funding the most serious challenge that NGOsface. In Slovakia the third sec- tor, a term used to describe the sphere of activities of non-go- vernmental organisations that perform roles which are not sufficiently covered by the first sector (the state) or the second sector (business), has played a significant role in the democratisationofsociety. Yet, in Slovakia the level of participation by citizens in public affairs is still insuffi- cient, Alena Pániková, direc- tor of the Open Society Foun- dation, told The Slovak Specta- tor, adding that “it is as though we are not aware that one needs to pay constant at- tention to democracy; critical- ly assessing and improving it, since its quality depends on us, and [refining] it is a never- ending process”. Pániková al- so noted that the public’s inte- rest in the third sector de- pends on the quality of infor- mation the public receives about it, and here she sees a bigchallengeforthemedia. According to Vagač, howe- ver, the development of society’s participation in pub- lic matters is a long process in post-communist societies, sin- ce the previous regime forced whole generations to keep si- lent and did not allow them to participate in public affairs, he toldTheSlovakSpectator. The 2 percent When it began, the income- tax assignment scheme allo- wed only private individuals to allocate 2 percent of their in- come tax payments to a chosen non-governmental organisati- on. Later, the scheme was ex- tended to allow companies to donate money as well. In 2009 the government changed the corporate scheme to encourage donations by companies from their own profits. Under the al- tered scheme a company can assign the maximum portion of its corporate tax dues only when it donatesmoneyfrom its own profits; the percentages that should be assigned and do- nated can vary, but the total should always be equal to 2.5 percentofpaidtaxes. For the first time, compa- nies had to donate their own money in order to trigger the maximum assignment from their 2010 corporate taxes. To assign 2 percent of their taxes, theyhadtodonateasumequal- ling 0.5 percent of taxes. The formula remained unchanged for the 2011 and 2012 taxation periods, but companies would have to donate the equivalent of 1 percent of their corporate income tax in order to assign 1.5 percent of their 2013 taxes. Thisformulashouldremainva- lid for the next four years, after which the amount that com- panies can assign is due to fall until it reaches 0.5 percent for the 2019 tax year, regardless of thedonations. However, the financial and economic crisis has interrup- ted these plans and after long negotiations with non-profit and non-governmental organi- sations, the Finance Ministry has decided to extend the cur- rentschemeforanotheryear. “The crisis revealed that fundraising mechanisms are weak and do not motivate for donation as well as philanthropy,”Vagačsaid.“The 2 percent assignment mecha- nism is the most powerful tool [for NGO fundraising], howe- ver, there are no other tools which could widen the portfo- lio of possibilities to support ci- tizens’volunteerism.” Government-NGO relations To explain the government’s attitude towards NGOs, Vagač pointed out that Smer, the governing party, has agreed to continue the imple- mentation of the Strategy of Civil Society Development in Slovakia and the Open Go- vernment Partnership Action Plan, both of which were the basic pre-conditions of the NGOs during discussions with PrimeMinisterRobertFico. Currently, specific de- partments are working on do- cuments, which should result in a memorandum of unders- tanding,todefinehowthedia- logue between the state and NGOs should take shape, ac- cording to Vagač, who added that this process will show the government’s willingness to reach agreement over partici- pation by NGOs in managing publicaffairs. Nagyová sees the preser- vation of the post of plenipo- tentiary of the Slovak go- vernment for the develop- ment of civil society as a posi- tive move, since the plenipo- tentiary ensured continuity in fulfilling the Strategy of Ci- vilSocietyDevelopment. Yet Pániková is rather sceptical about the government’s willingness to cooperate with the third sec- tor. Even though the govern- ment has declared that it con- siders the third sector to be an important player, the reality has so far not reflected that, Pániková said. “We have set some formal mechanisms [for cooperation], but oftentimes there is not sufficient time or room for real application of NGOs’ knowledge and expe- riences during their participa- tioninlegislativeprocesses.” Pániková mentioned Slovakia’s Open Government Partnership Action Plan, which is a commitment ari- sing from the Open Govern- ment Partnership Initiative, adding that there is a possibi- lity that participation will improve in the event that the governmentfollowsthatplan. There were almost 37,000 NGOs in Slovakia in 2011, of which 33,240 were civic or- ganisations, 2,200 were non- investment funds, 874 were non-profit organisations providing generally benefi- cial services and 610 were foundations. Many NGOs ha- ve probably since been liqu- idated, since they were crea- ted for only one specific acti- vity or were too small to sur- vive, according to the 2011 CSO Sustainability Index for Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia, a report that is prepared annually by the US Agency for International De- velopment (USAID) in coope- ration with non-governmen- tal organisations in countries oftheregion. Volunteers repair the sidewalks. Photo: Sme BY ROMAN CUPRIK Spectator staff Volunteering – Volunteering is an activity that is not conducted primarily for financial profit, even when the voluntary activities may include compensation for costs associated with their performance. Vo- luntaryactivitiesareperformedbyindividualsoftheirownfreewilland bringprofittopeopleotherthanthevolunteer. Charity – The underlying principle of charity is love of one’s neigh- bour. There are a number of different organisations focusing on charity whichcareforthepoorandsociallydisadvantaged. NGO–Anentitywithlegalidentitythatdoesnotcreateordistribute profits. It can have an income as well as paid workers but it cannot dis- tributemoneytoitsmembersormanagement.NGOsoperateonavolun- tarybasisandareindependentofgovernmentandpublicinstitutions. (Corporate) Social Responsibility – The European Commission de- fines corporate social responsibility as the responsibility of enterprises fortheirimpactsonsociety.Tofullymeettheirsocialresponsibility,en- terprisesshouldhaveinplaceaprocesstointegratesocial,environmen- tal, ethical human rights and consumer concerns into their business operations. Philanthropy – Voluntary donation of funds, time, services or goodsforcharitablepurposeswithoutexpectingdirectcounter-value. Philanthropy can be individual, corporate or institutional. Philanth- ropyisnotsponsorship,whichismotivatedbyanimmediatebusiness goal,thevisibilityofthecompanyorotherexpectedbusinessbenefits. Sponsorship – A form of financial or non-financial co-operation between a business and a non-profit entity which has a contractual form. Sponsorship provides the business partner with an opportunity topresentitselfthroughanon-profitproject. Civil Society – Civil Society use to be known as the civic sector, the non-governmental sector, and the non-profit sector. It is therefo- re clear that civil society is created by diverse free activities that are independent of public authorities and whose purpose is not to make a profit but to promote higher, public, general, partial, group or indivi- dualinterests. Sources: Pontis Foundation, The Plenipotentiary of the Slovak Government for the DevelopmentofCivilSociety,EuropeanComission, partnerstva.skwebsites. Vocabulary related to the third sector š Bachelor degree: liberal arts, political theory, IR š Priority: excellence and commitment š Native English teachers and internship š Seminar-type courses and beautiful campus š Semester in USA, Germany, Holland or Russia š Apply online free of charge: www.bisla.sk/prihlaska BISLA Bratislava International School of Liberal Arts PROGRAM in ENGLISH +421905727785 Grösslingova53 bisla@bisla.sk

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Inzercia 28 Všetko o svojom účte zistíš rýchlo a jednoducho – stačí sa prihlásiť do Internet bankinguTB alebo použiť šikovnú mobilnú aplikáciuTatra banka. Chceš vedieť, či si už dostal vreckové alebo peniaze z brigády? Aktivuj si službu b-mail aTatra banka ťa o všetkých pohyboch na účte informuje prostredníctvom bezplatnej SMS. BEZKONTAKTNÁ PLATBA Bezkotaktná platba je momentálne najrýchlejším spôsobom platby na svete! Na miestach označených alebo VISA PayWave môžeš svojou kartou platiť bezkontaktne za nákupy v akejkoľvek výške. Pri platbe nad 20 € je potrebné zadať PIN kód. O platbe do 20 € sa banka dozvie, až keď ju obchodník zašle do zúčtovania. Preto ti po zaplatení nebude zaslaná SMS správa o transakcii. PIN Tvoja platobná karta je chránená PIN kódom, ktorý ostáva rovnaký aj po obnovení karty. Nikomu ho nedávaj ani si ho nikam nepíš. prijímať vreckové od rodičov a výplatu z brigád rýchlo a pohodlne, platiť kartou v obchodoch doma aj v zahraničí, nakupovať cez internet, využívať mobilné aplikácie Tatra banky, používať Internet bankingTB, prijímať SMS správy o pohyboch na účte. K svojmu Študentskému účtu získaš štýlovú platobnú kartu, ktorá sa ti zíde: So Študentským účtom môžeš ZADARMO a NEOBMEDZENE: pri nákupoch tovarov a služieb cez internet, pri bezpečnom prihlásení sa do Internet bankinguTB. pri nákupoch v obchodoch, pri dobíjaní kreditu do mobilu cez bankomat, pri platbách za služby, napríklad v kaderníctve či v športovom centre, POMOC Ak potrebuješ akúkoľvek pomoc pri používaní karty či v prípade jej straty alebo krádeže, ihneď zavolaj na 24-hodinové kontaktné centrum DIALOG Live na číslo *1100. www.tatrabanka.sk/studenti Viac informácií o platobnej karte a výhodách balíka služieb Tatra PersonalTB získaš na www.tatrabanka.sk TB_SWAG_print_258x345_1015.indd 1 4.11.2015 17:13

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